The Algorithm for Automatic Determination of Human Step Phases

  • Svitlana Herasymenko
  • Piotr Bieńkowski
  • Piotr KopniakEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 548)


The article presents an algorithm for automatic determination of steps and individual phases of human gait based on data from an inertial sensor. To obtain the necessary data, measurements were made using Xsens inertial sensors from the MTw Awinda set. Changes in the feet rotation angles during gait and acceleration data were investigated. After a thorough analysis of the data, an algorithm for determining the step phases was implemented, based on which an application was created for automatically dividing gait into steps and steps into individual phases, which allows later analysis of gait parameters, e.g. for medical diagnosis. The main function of the application is a graphical presentation of the algorithm’s operation, by generating a graph of data along with the selected step phases.


Motion capture Human gait Algorithm Step phases Inertial sensor 


  1. 1.
    Chen, S., Lach, J., Lo, B., Yang, G.: Toward pervasive gait analysis with wearable sensors: a systematic review. IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform., 1521–1537 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kopniak, P.: Construction, principle of operation and application of the Xsens motion capture system. Logistyka (3), 3049–3058 (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kopniak, P.: Java wrapper for Xsens motion capture system SDK. In: 7th International Conference on Human System Interactions (HSI), pp. 106–111. IEEE, Lisbon, 16–18 June 2014Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kopniak, P., Kaminski, M.: Natural interface for robotic arm controlling based on inertial motion capture. In: 9th International Conference on Human System Interactions (HSI), Portsmouth, pp. 110–116, 06–08 July 2016Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kopniak, P., Bocian, K.: Differentiating horse walk and trot on the basis of inertial motion capture. In: 9th International Conference on Human System Interactions (HSI), Portsmouth, pp. 270–276, 06–08 July 2016Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Drubicki, M., Szymczyk, D., Snela, S., Dudek, J., Chuchla, M.: Objective, quantitative gait analysis methods in clinical practice. Przeglad Medyczny Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego (4), 356–362 (2009). RzeszowGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sutheland, D.H., Olshen, R., Cooper, L., Woo, S.L.-Y.: The development of mature gait. J. Bone Joint Surg. (1980)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burnett, C.N., Johnson, E.W.: Development of gait in childhood. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. (1971)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gage, J.: The Treatment of Gait Problems in Cerebral Palsy. Mac Keith Press, London (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Maj, P., Barczewska, K., Drozd, A., Kowalski, J.: Accelerometer gait examination and analysis. In: PAK, vol. 58, nr 4/2012 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Korotkin, D., Kuznetcov, A.: Inertial measurement system for human gait analysis. In: Proceeding BodyNets 2013 Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Body Area Networks, pp. 414–419 (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Śniezek, A., Mezyk, A., Michniuk, R.: Analysis of the dynamics and kinematics of normal walking. Aktualne Problemy Biomechaniki, 1/2007 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    MTw Development Kit Lite (legacy product) (2018). Accessed 15 Mar 2018
  14. 14.
    Chwała, W., Serafin, W., Ruchlewicz, T.: Biomechanical analysis of gait disturbances in a person subjected to hip arthroplasty. Acta Sci. Acad. Ostroviensis 13, 85–102 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Quick start for MTi Development Kit (2018). Accessed 15 Mar 2018
  16. 16.
    Kernozek, T.W., Willson, J.D.: Gait. Accessed 15 Mar 2018
  17. 17.
    Zak, E.: Gait phases and muscular activity. Accessed 15 Mar 2018
  18. 18.
    Tarulli, A.: Gait disorders. In: Neurology. Springer, Cham (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Svitlana Herasymenko
    • 1
  • Piotr Bieńkowski
    • 1
  • Piotr Kopniak
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Computer Science, Lublin University of TechnologyLublinPoland

Personalised recommendations