Analysis of the Accuracy of Liquid Flow Measurements by the Means of Ultrasonic Method in Non-standard Measurements Conditions

  • Piotr PiechotaEmail author
  • Piotr Synowiec
  • Artur Andruszkiewicz
  • Wiesław Wędrychowicz
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 548)


The article presents the results of ultrasonic flow measurements performed after the hydraulic elbow. Ultrasonic flowmeter with applied head set in accordance with the Z-type was used to carry out the measurements. The results of flow measurements after the hydraulic elbow were referenced to measurements made on a straight section of the pipeline before the elbow, where the flow was stabilized, and the velocity profile was symmetrical with respect to the pipe-line axis. Measurements, with the maintaining a constant volumetric stream flow, were made for 12 different angles of the flowmeter head settings in 16 distances from the hydraulic elbow. The results of the measurements were compared with the velocity values obtained from the flow simulation performed in the ANSYS CFX program. On the basis of the comparison of the measurement results with the simulation results, and also based on the analysis of the velocity profiles, it was found that at the appropriate angle of the head setting, measurements can be made using the ultrasound method at a distance smaller than the one described in the standards. The optimal location of the measurement can be selected on the basis of a computer flow simulation, which is a representation of geometry and measurement conditions. This action scheme can be used in the flow measurements, which are carried out after the obstacle which is disturbing the flow, in the pipelines with large diameters (for example power plants, electrical power and heating plant, chemical industry) where finding a straight section with a length of 15–20 pipeline diameters is problematic.


Ultrasonic flowmeter Turbulent flow Hydraulic elbow 



diameter of the pipeline


turbulent kinetic energy


Reynolds number


flow velocity


mean flow velocity component in the xj coordinate direction


mean strain rate tensor


transit time of the ultrasonic wave


space coordinate component j = 1, 2, 3


flow rate


angle of the flowmeter probe setting


turbulent dissipation rate


turbulent eddy viscosity




total stress tensor


turbulent Reynolds stress tensor


specific turbulent dissipation rate.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Piotr Piechota
    • 1
    Email author
  • Piotr Synowiec
    • 1
  • Artur Andruszkiewicz
    • 1
  • Wiesław Wędrychowicz
    • 1
  1. 1.Wrocław University of Science and TechnologyWrocławPoland

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