General Technical Recommendations for Difficult Laparoscopic Cases
The surgeon will most likely encounter challenging and difficult cases, and this may occur with either open or laparoscopic approaches. Laparoscopy with its limited optical view, diminished tactile sensation, retraction/exposure difficulties, and instrument limitations can present significant obstacles for the surgeon during a difficult surgical situation. In this chapter we discuss several important steps the surgeon can take to improve the laparoscopic approach in difficult scenarios.
KeywordsLaparoscopy Minimally invasive Complex Difficult
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