Retinoblastoma: Evolving Therapies

  • Junyang Zhao
  • Honggai Yan


Retinoblastoma is the most common primary malignant cancer of the eye in children arising in the developing retina. Depending on tumour stage, number of tumour foci, localization and size of tumours within the eye, presence of vitreous seeding, metastatic situations, age and health of the child, and the family’s wishes, doctors choose different therapies for retinoblastoma patients. The traditional treatment options include enucleation, cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation, thermotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. In recent years, in order to achieve the maximum concentrations of chemotherapy close to the tumour and in the vitreous, intra-arterial chemotherapy, intravitreal chemotherapy and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) have emerged as potential therapies.


Retinoblastoma Enucleation Intravenous chemotherapy Intra-arterial chemotherapy Intravitreal chemotherapy Pars plana vitrectomy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junyang Zhao
    • 1
  • Honggai Yan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyBeijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children’s HealthBeijingChina

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