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Pericytes in the Heart

  • Linda L. Lee
  • Vishnu ChintalgattuEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1122)

Abstract

Mural cells known as pericytes envelop the endothelial layer of microvessels throughout the body and have been described to have tissue-specific functions. Cardiac pericytes are abundantly found in the heart, but they are relatively understudied. Currently, their importance is emerging in cardiovascular homeostasis and dysfunction due to their pleiotropism. They are known to play key roles in vascular tone and vascular integrity as well as angiogenesis. However, their dysfunctional presence and/or absence is critical in the mechanisms that lead to cardiac pathologies such as myocardial infarction, fibrosis, and thrombosis. Moreover, they are targeted as a therapeutic potential due to their mesenchymal properties that could allow them to repair and regenerate a damaged heart. They are also sought after as a cell-based therapy based on their healing potential in preclinical studies of animal models of myocardial infarction. Therefore, recognizing the importance of cardiac pericytes and understanding their biology will lead to new therapeutic concepts.

Keywords

Cardiac pericyte Heart Cardiovascular physiology Cardiovascular pathophysiology Myocardial infarction Myocardial ischemic disease Vascular stem cell Perivascular cell Mural cell Vascular tone Vascular integrity Vascular biology 

Abbreviations

3g5

Ganglioside 3g5

αSMA

Alpha-smooth muscle actin

Alk-p

Alkaline phosphatase

Angpt-1

Angiopoietin-1

Angpt-2

Angiopoietin-2

BDNF

Endothelial brain-derived neurotrophic factor

CNP

C-type natriuretic peptide

cPC

Cardiac pericyte

CTGF/CCN2

Connective tissue growth factor

Cx43

Connexin-43

CXCR3

Chemokine receptor 3

ECM

Extracellular matrix

Gli1

Glioma-associated oncogene 1

HB-EGF

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

LRP

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6

MI

Myocardial infarction

MMPs

Matrix metalloproteinases

MSC

Mesenchymal stem cells

NANOG

Homeobox transcription factor Nanog

NG2

Neural glial 2

OCT4

Octamer-binding transcription factor 4

p75 NTR

Neurotrophin receptor

PDGFbb

Platelet-derived growth factor bb

PDGFRβ

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta

pro-NGF

Pro-nerve growth factor

RGS5

Regulator of G protein signaling 5

S1P

Sphingosine-1-phosphate

SIRT3

Sirtuin 3

SorCS2

Sortilin-related VPS10 domain-containing receptor 2

SOX2

Sex-determining region box

SVPs

Saphenous vein-derived pericyte progenitor cells

Tbx18

T-box protein 18

TF

Tissue factor

TGFβ

Transforming growth factor beta

TrkB

Tropomyosin receptor kinase B

VCAF

Vascular calcification-associated factor

VEGF-A

Vascular endothelial growth factor A

VEGFR2

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

vWF

von Willebrand factor

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CardioMetabolic Disorders, Amgen Research and DiscoveryAmgen Inc.South San FranciscoUSA

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