Advertisement

High Quality Facial Surface and Texture Synthesis via Generative Adversarial Networks

  • Ron SlossbergEmail author
  • Gil Shamai
  • Ron Kimmel
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11131)

Abstract

In the past several decades, many attempts have been made to model synthetic realistic geometric data. The goal of such models is to generate plausible 3D geometries and textures. Perhaps the best known of its kind is the linear 3D morphable model (3DMM) for faces. Such models can be found at the core of many computer vision applications such as face reconstruction, recognition and authentication to name just a few.

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have shown great promise in imitating high dimensional data distributions. State of the art GANs are capable of performing tasks such as image to image translation as well as auditory and image signal synthesis, producing novel plausible samples from the data distribution at hand.

Geometric data is generally more difficult to process due to the inherent lack of an intrinsic parametrization. By bringing geometric data into an aligned space, we are able to map the data onto a 2D plane using a universal parametrization. This alignment process allows for efficient processing of digitally scanned geometric data via image processing tools. Using this methodology, we propose a novel face synthesis model for generation of realistic facial textures together with their corresponding geometry. A GAN is employed in order to imitate the space of parametrized human textures, while corresponding facial geometries are generated by learning the best 3DMM coefficients for each texture. The generated textures are mapped back onto the corresponding geometries to obtain new generated high resolution 3D faces.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was partially supported by the Israel Ministry of Science, grant number 3-14719 and the Technion Hiroshi Fujiwara Cyber Security Research Center and the Israel Cyber Bureau. We would like to thank Intel Inc for contributing the facial scans used during this research.

Supplementary material

478822_1_En_36_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (783 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (pdf 782 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Masi, I., Tr\({\grave{\hat{\rm {a}}}}\)n, A.T., Hassner, T., Leksut, J.T., Medioni, G.: Do we really need to collect millions of faces for effective face recognition? In: Leibe, B., Matas, J., Sebe, N., Welling, M. (eds.) ECCV 2016. LNCS, vol. 9909, pp. 579–596. Springer, Cham (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46454-1_35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shrivastava, A., Pfister, T., Tuzel, O., Susskind, J., Wang, W., Webb, R.: Learning from simulated and unsupervised images through adversarial training. In: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), vol. 3, p. 6 (2017)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Richardson, E., Sela, M., Or-El, R., Kimmel, R.: Learning detailed face reconstruction from a single image. In: 2017 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pp. 5553–5562. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gecer, B., Bhattarai, B., Kittler, J., Kim, T.K.: Semi-supervised adversarial learning to generate photorealistic face images of new identities from 3D morphable model. arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.03675 (2018)
  5. 5.
    Blanz, V., Vetter, T.: A morphable model for the synthesis of 3D faces. In: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 187–194. ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Saito, S., Wei, L., Hu, L., Nagano, K., Li, H.: Photorealistic facial texture inference using deep neural networks. In: IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, CVPR, vol. 3 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Richardson, E., Sela, M., Kimmel, R.: 3D face reconstruction by learning from synthetic data. In: 2016 Fourth International Conference on 3D Vision (3DV), pp. 460–469. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sela, M., Richardson, E., Kimmel, R.: Unrestricted facial geometry reconstruction using image-to-image translation. In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), pp. 1585–1594. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jolliffe, I.T.: Principal component analysis and factor analysis. In: Jolliffe, I.T. (ed.) Principal Component Analysis. Springer Series in Statistics, pp. 115–128. Springer, New York (1986).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-1904-8_7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Booth, J., Roussos, A., Ponniah, A., Dunaway, D., Zafeiriou, S.: Large scale 3D morphable models. Int. J. Comput. Vis. 126(2–4), 233–254 (2018)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Booth, J., Roussos, A., Zafeiriou, S., Ponniah, A., Dunaway, D.: A 3D morphable model learnt from 10,000 faces. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 5543–5552 (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gross, R., Matthews, I., Cohn, J., Kanade, T., Baker, S.: Multi-pie. Image Vis. Comput. 28(5), 807–813 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alabort-i-Medina, J., Antonakos, E., Booth, J., Snape, P., Zafeiriou, S.: Menpo: a comprehensive platform for parametric image alignment and visual deformable models. In: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Multimedia, MM 2014, New York, NY, USA, pp. 679–682. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    King, D.E.: Dlib-ml: a machine learning toolkit. J. Mach. Learn. Res. 10, 1755–1758 (2009)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blender Online Community: Blender - a 3D modelling and rendering package. Blender Foundation, Blender Institute, Amsterdam (2017). http://www.blender.org
  16. 16.
    Goodfellow, I., et al.: Generative adversarial nets. In: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 2672–2680 (2014)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    van den Oord, A., et al.: WaveNet: a generative model for raw audio. arXiv preprint arXiv:1609.03499 (2016)
  18. 18.
    Karras, T., Aila, T., Laine, S., Lehtinen, J.: Progressive growing of GANs for improved quality, stability, and variation. In: International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR) (2017)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Isola, P., Zhu, J.Y., Zhou, T., Efros, A.A.: Image-to-image translation with conditional adversarial networks. arXiv preprint (2017)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhu, J.Y., Park, T., Isola, P., Efros, A.A.: Unpaired image-to-image translation using cycle-consistent adversarial networks. arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.10593 (2017)
  21. 21.
    Gulrajani, I., Ahmed, F., Arjovsky, M., Dumoulin, V., Courville, A.C.: Improved training of Wasserstein GANs. In: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 5769–5779 (2017)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arjovsky, M., Chintala, S., Bottou, L.: Wasserstein GAN. arXiv preprint arXiv:1701.07875 (2017)
  23. 23.
    Mao, X., Li, Q., Xie, H., Lau, R.Y., Wang, Z., Smolley, S.P.: Least squares generative adversarial networks. In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), pp. 2813–2821. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chu, B., Romdhani, S., Chen, L.: 3D-aided face recognition robust to expression and pose variations. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1899–1906 (2014)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rabin, J., Peyré, G., Delon, J., Bernot, M.: Wasserstein barycenter and its application to texture mixing. In: Bruckstein, A.M., ter Haar Romeny, B.M., Bronstein, A.M., Bronstein, M.M. (eds.) SSVM 2011. LNCS, vol. 6667, pp. 435–446. Springer, Heidelberg (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-24785-9_37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    van der Maaten, L., Hinton, G.: Visualizing data using t-SNE. J. Mach. Learn. Res. 9, 2579–2605 (2008)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Amos, B., Ludwiczuk, B., Satyanarayanan, M.: OpenFace: a general-purpose face recognition library with mobile applications. Technical report, CMU-CS-16-118, CMU School of Computer Science (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Technion CS DepartmentHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Technion EE DepartmentHaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations