Communication Between Living and Non-living Systems: The Basis for Advanced Targeted Nanomedicine

  • Uche Chude-Okonkwo
  • Reza MalekianEmail author
  • B. T. Maharaj
Part of the Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology book series (NANOMED)


Every system known to man can be categorised as either a living system or a non-living system. There are many features and factors which differentiate the categories. Living systems are distinguishable from non-living systems by their ability to maintain stable, ordered states far from thermodynamic equilibrium (PLoS ONE 6:e22085, 2011 [1]). For the living systems to maintain the ordered nonequilibrium states, they continuously exchange information/entropy with their environments, grow and reproduce. Examples of living systems include humans, animals, plants and cells. On the other hand, non-living systems, if isolated or placed in a uniform environment, usually cease all motion very quickly such that no macroscopically observable events occur, thereby maintaining permanent equilibrium. Examples include all inanimate objects.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uche Chude-Okonkwo
    • 1
  • Reza Malekian
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. T. Maharaj
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer EngineeringUniversity of PretoriaHatfield, PretoriaSouth Africa

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