Advertisement

Cutaneous Stigmata and the Occult Spinal Dysraphisms

  • Jaspreet Johal
  • Charlotte Wilson
  • R. Shane Tubbs
  • W. Jerry OakesEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Cutaneous birthmarks are usually innocuous. However, when over the lumbosacral spine, especially, in the midline, the likelihood of an associated underlying spinal dysraphism rises. Herein, we discuss the various cutaneous markers and their associated occult spinal dysraphisms.

Keywords

Skin Congenital Malformation Clinical Stigmata 

References

  1. 1.
    Sarin YK. Cutaneous stigmata of occult spinal dysraphism. J Neonatal Surg. 2013;2:15.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    O’Neill BR, et al. Use of magnetic resonance imaging to detect occult spinal dysraphism in infants. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2017;19(2):217–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chern JJ, et al. Use of lumbar ultrasonography to detect occult spinal dysraphism. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9(3):274–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sardana K, et al. A prospective study of cutaneous manifestations of spinal dysraphism from India. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26(6):688–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ben-Sira L, et al. Low-risk lumbar skin stigmata in infants: the role of ultrasound screening. J Pediatr. 2009;155(6):864–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bradford DS, Heithoff KB, Cohen M. Intraspinal abnormalities and congenital spine deformities: a radiographic and MRI study. J Pediatr Orthop. 1991;11(1):36–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tarcan T, et al. The value of sacral skin lesions in predicting occult spinal dysraphism in children with voiding dysfunction and normal neurological examination. J Pediatr Urol. 2012;8(1):55–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schropp C, et al. Cutaneous lesions in occult spinal dysraphism – correlation with intraspinal findings. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22(2):125–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Epelman M, et al. Vascular lesions – congenital, acquired, and iatrogenic: imaging in the neonate. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2015;36(2):193–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jacobs AH, Walton RG. The incidence of birthmarks in the neonate. Pediatrics. 1976;58(2):218–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Senthilkumar M, Thappa DM. Vascular nevi in children. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2006;72(1):19–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bruckner AL, Frieden IJ. Hemangiomas of infancy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48(4):477–93; quiz 494–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dohil MA, Baugh WP, Eichenfield LF. Vascular and pigmented birthmarks. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2000;47(4):783–812, v–viGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Albright AL, Gartner JC, Wiener ES. Lumbar cutaneous hemangiomas as indicators of tethered spinal cords. Pediatrics. 1989;83(6):977–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Humphreys RP. Clinical evaluation of cutaneous lesions of the back: spinal signatures that do not go away. Clin Neurosurg. 1996;43:175–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tubbs RS, et al. Isolated flat capillary midline lumbosacral hemangiomas as indicators of occult spinal dysraphism. J Neurosurg. 2004;100(2 Suppl Pediatrics):86–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pavone P, et al. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis: the skin as a clue to complex malformation syndromes. Ital J Pediatr. 2015;41:55.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kriss VM, Besai NS. Occult spinal dysraphism in neonates: assessment of high-risk cutaneous stigmata on sonography. Am J Roentgenol. 1998;171:1692–7.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tubbs RS, et al. Neurological presentation and long-term outcome following operative intervention in patients with meningocele manqué. Br J Neurosurg. 2003;17(3):230–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schmidt C, et al. Meningocele manqué: a comprehensive review of this enigmatic finding in occult spinal dysraphism. Childs Nerv Syst. 2017;33(7):1065–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Robinson AJ, Russell S, Rimmer S. The value of ultrasonic examination of the lumbar spine in infants with specific reference to cutaneous markers of occult spinal dysraphism. Clin Radiol. 2005;60(1):72–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Drolet BA. Cutaneous signs of neural tube dysraphism. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2000;47(4):813–23.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pierre-Kahn A, et al. Congenital lumbosacral lipomas. Childs Nerv Syst. 1997;13(6):298–334; discussion 335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brunelle F, et al. Lumbar spinal cord motion measurement with phase-contrast MR imaging in normal children and in children with spinal lipomas. Pediatr Radiol. 1996;26(4):265–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Peter JC, Sinclair-Smith C, de Villiers JC. Midline dermal sinuses and cysts and their relationship to the central nervous system. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 1991;1(2):73–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clark P, Davidson L. Case report: pseudotail with dermal sinus tract and tethered cord. J Ultrasound. 2016;19(3):239–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tubbs RS, et al. Enigmatic human tails: a review of their history, embryology, classification, and clinical manifestations. Clin Anat. 2016;29(4):430–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Matsumoto S, Yamamoto T, Okura K. Human tail associated with lipomeningocele – case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1994;34(1):44–7.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Silberstein E, et al. Aplasia cutis congenita: clinical management and a new classification system. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;134(5):766e–74e.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Higginbottom MC, et al. Aplasia cutis congenital: a cutaneous marker of occult spinal dysraphism. J Pediatr. 1980;96:687–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaspreet Johal
    • 1
  • Charlotte Wilson
    • 2
  • R. Shane Tubbs
    • 3
  • W. Jerry Oakes
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.St. George’s UniversitySt. GeorgeGrenada
  2. 2.Department of Cell and Developmental BiologyUniversity of Colorado Anschutz Medical CampusDenverUSA
  3. 3.Seattle Science FoundationSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Division of NeurosurgeryChildren’s of AlabamaBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations