• Nereo Markulic
  • Kuba Raczkowski
  • Jan Craninckx
  • Piet Wambacq
Part of the Analog Circuits and Signal Processing book series (ACSP)


This chapter introduces a local oscillator (LO) as a building block that finds place in the hearth of every modern wireless transceiver. Initially, we discuss the LO performance metrics such as phase noise, spurious content, frequency granularity, and power consumption in context of down/up conversion in accurate receive and transmit modes. An LO is typically implemented within a phase-locked loop (PLL), a system that has been intensively researched for a number of years. We follow its development from initial, purely analog implementations to modern digitally intensive solutions. We discuss the basic theory of operation with practical implementation in mind. The discussion gradually arrives to recently introduced subsampling PLL architectures that tend to overcome typical performance limitations of prior art, offering extreme low-noise synthesis potential.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nereo Markulic
    • 1
  • Kuba Raczkowski
    • 1
  • Jan Craninckx
    • 1
  • Piet Wambacq
    • 1
  1. 1.IMECLeuvenBelgium

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