Advertisement

4 Demography of Gender

  • Nancy E. RileyEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

Over the last four decades, there has been a major shift in the way demographers think about issues of gender; the field has gone from a seeming lack of awareness that many demographic events are closely connected to gender to a nearly required nod to the relevance of gender. However, although headway has been made, the last few decades have seen interest and attention to gender wax and wane. Drawing from mainstream demography, I demonstrate the progress that the field has made, both in understanding the importance of gender and in developing empirical support for the role of gender in demographic processes. By drawing from population-related research outside the strict confines of the field of demography, this chapter also suggests how demography might move further in understanding gender by drawing from the insights into epistemological and methodological challenges faced by scholars who study gender. I argue that demographers might productively both borrow from and contribute to these conversations about gender, enriching demography’s work on gender.

Keywords

Measuring gender Maternal health Gender-based violence Motherhood Power Gender resistance Biopolitics Epistemology 

References

  1. Abu-Lhod, L. (1990). The Romance of Resistance: tracing transformation of power through Bedouin Women. American Ethnologist, 17 (1), 41–55. Google Scholar
  2. Adedini S.A., Odimegwu C., Imasiku E.N., Ononokpono D.N. & Ibisomi, L. (2014). Regional Variations in Infant and Child Mortality in Nigeria: A Multilevel Analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, 10,1–23.Google Scholar
  3. Adema, W. (2012). Setting the scene: The mix of family policy objectives and packages across the OECD. Children & Youth Services Review, 34 (3), 487–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adams, V. ed. (2016). Metrics: What Counts in Global Health. Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Ahmed, S. (2017). Living a Feminist Life. Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Alcoff, L., and E. Potter, eds. (1993). Feminist epistemologies. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Alemayehu, Y. K., Theall, K., Lemma, W., Hajito, K. W., & Tushune, K. (2015). The Role of Empowerment in the Association between a Woman's Educational Status and Infant Mortality in Ethiopia: Secondary Analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys. Ethiopian Journal Of Health Sciences, 25 (4), 353–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alkema, L., Chou, D., Hogan, D., Zhang, S., Moller, A.-B., Gemmill, A., . . . Say, L. (2015). Global, regional, and national levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group. The Lancet, 387 (10017), 462–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderson, T. and Kohler, H. (2015). Low Fertility, Socioeconomic Development, and Gender Equity. Population & Development Review, 41 (3), 381–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Angus, I. (2011). Too Many People? Population, Immigration, and the Environmental Crisis. Haymarket Books.Google Scholar
  11. Anker, R. (1994). Measuring women’s participation in the African labour force. In A. Adepoju and C. Oppong (Eds), Gender, work and population in sub-Saharan Africa. (pp. 64–75). London: James Currey, for ILO.Google Scholar
  12. Bachrach, C. (2001). How can thinking about gender help us do better science? Presented at Population Association Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C., 29 March 2001.Google Scholar
  13. Balk, D. (1994). Individual and community aspects of women’s status and fertility in rural Bangladesh. Population Studies, 48 (1), 21–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Balk, D. (1997). Defying gender norms in rural Bangladesh: A social demographic analysis. Population Studies, 51 (2),153–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barrett, M. and Phillips, A. eds. (1992a). Introduction. In M. Barrett and A. Phillips (Eds), Destabilizing theory: Contemporary feminist debates (pp. 1–9). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Barrett, M., and Phillips, A. eds. (1992b). Destabilizing theory: Contemporary feminist debates. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Basu, A. and Basu, K. (1991). Women’s economic roles and child survival: The case of India. Health Transition Review, 1 (2), 83–103.Google Scholar
  18. Behrman, J. (2015). Does Schooling Affect Women's Desired Fertility? Evidence From Malawi, Uganda, and Ethiopia. Demography, 52 (3), 787–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Birke, L. and Vines, G. (1987). Beyond nature vs. nurture. Women’s Studies International Forum, 10 (6), 555–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blackwood, E. (2000). Webs of Power: Women, kin, and community in a Sumatran village. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  21. Blanc, A., Wolff, B., Gage, A. Ezeh, A. Neema, S. and Ssekamatte-Ssebuliba, J. (1996). Negotiating reproductive health outcomes in Uganda. Calverton, MD: Macro International.Google Scholar
  22. Bloom, S., Wypij, D, and Das Gupta, M. (2001). Dimensions of women’s autonomy and the influence on maternal health care utilization in a North India city. Demography, 38 (1), 7–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bridges, K. (2011). Reproducing Race: An Ethnography of Pregnancy as a Site of Racialization. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  24. Briggs, L. (2002). Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science and US Imperialism in Puerto Rico. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Briggs, L. (2017). How All Politics Became Reproductive Politics. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  26. Brown, W. (1995). States of injury. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Browner, C. H. (1986). The politics of reproduction in a Mexican village. Signs, 11 (4), 710–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brunson, J. (2010). Confronting Maternal Mortality, Controlling Birth in Nepal: The Gendered Politics of Receiving Biomedical Care at Birth. Social Science and Medicine, 71(10), 1719–1727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brunson, J. (2011). Moving Away from Marital Violence: Nepali Mothers Who Refuse to Stay. Practicing Anthropology, 33 (3), 17–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brunson, J. (2016). Planning Families in Nepal: Global and Local Projects of Reproduction. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Brunson, J. (2018). Maternal health in Nepal and other low-income countries: Causes, contexts, and future directions. In N.E. Riley and J. Brunson (Eds.), International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes (pp.141–152) Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Cain, M. (1991). Widows, sons and old-age security in rural Maharashtra. Population Studies, 45 (3), 519–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cain, M., Khanam, S. and Nahar, S. (1979). Class, patriarchy, and women’s work in Bangladesh. Population and Development Review, 5 (3), 405–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cain, M. (1993). Patriarchal structure and demographic change. In Federici, K. O. Mason, and S. Sogner (Eds.), Women’s position and demographic change (pp. 43–60). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  35. Caldwell, J. (1979). Education as a factor in mortality decline: An examination of Nigerian data. Population Studies, 33 (3), 395–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Caldwell, J. (1982). Theory of fertility decline. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Caldwell, J. (1986). Routes to low mortality in poor countries. Population and Development Review, 12 (2), 171–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Caldwell, J. (1994). How is greater maternal education translated into lower child mortality? Health Transition Review, 4 (2), 224–229.Google Scholar
  39. Castro Martin, T. (1995). Women’s education and fertility: Results from 26 demographic and health surveys. Studies in Family Planning, 26 (4),187–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Charbit, Y. (2018). “Women as actors in addressing climate change.” In N.E. Riley and J. Brunson (Eds.), International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes (pp. 317–328). Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. Chatterjee, N., and Riley, N.E. (2001). Planning an Indian modernity: The gendered politics of fertility control. Signs, 26 (3), 811–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chatterjee, N., and Riley, N. E. (2018). “Women, Biopower and the Making of Demographic Knowledge: India's Demographic and Health Survey.” In N.E. Riley and J. Brunson (Eds.), International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes (pp. 37–54). Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  43. Chesnais, J. (1996). Fertility, family, and social policy in contemporary Western Europe. Population and Development Review, 22 (4),729–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Clarke, Kim. (2012). Gender, State, and Medicine in Highland Ecuador: Modernizing Women, Modernizing the State, 1895–1950. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cleland, J. and van Ginneken, J. (1988). Maternal education and child survival in developing countries: The search for pathways of influence. Social Science and Medicine, 27 (12),1357–1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cleland, J., and G. Rodriguez. 1988. The effect of parental education on marital fertility in developing countries. Population Studies 42:419–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cleland, J., and Wilson, C. (1987). Demand theories of the fertility transition: An iconoclastic view. Population Studies, 41 (1), 5–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Clough, Sharyn. (2003). Beyond Epistemology: A Pragmatist Approach to Feminist Science Studies. Lanham MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  49. Cochrane, S. (1979). Fertility and education: What do we really know? Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Cochrane, S. (1983). Effects of education and urbanization on fertility. In R. Bulatao & R. Lee (Eds.), Determinants of fertility in developing countries 2 (pp. 587–626). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  51. Connelly, M. (2008). Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Constable, N. (2014). Born Out of Place: Migrant Mothers and the Politics of International Labor. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Cooke, L. P. (2009). Gender Equity and Fertility in Italy and Spain. Journal Of Social Policy, 38(1), 123–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cornwall, A., Gideon, J. & Wilson, K. (2008). Introduction: Reclaiming feminism: gender and neoliberalism. IDS Bulletin, 39 (6), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cui, W.Y. (2010). Mother or nothing: the agony of infertility. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 88, 881–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Cukut, S. (2007). Understanding Fertility, Work and Family Through a Gender Lens: A Case Study. Anthropological Notebooks, 13 (2), 95–110.Google Scholar
  57. Dales, L. (2018). Marriage in Contemporary Japan. In N.E. Riley and J. Brunson (Eds.), International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes (pp. 287–298). Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  58. de Certeau, M. (1984). The practice of everyday life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  59. Demeny, P. (1988). Social science and population policy. Population and Development Review, 14 (3), 451–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Desai, S.(2000). Maternal education and child health: A feminist dilemma. Feminist Studies, 26 (2), 425–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Desai, S., and S. Alva. (1998). Maternal education and child health: Is there a strong causal relationship? Demography, 35 (1),71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Desai, S. and L. Andrist. (2010). “Gender Scripts and Age at Marriage in India.” Demography 47 (3), 667–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Desai, S., and D. Jain. (1994). Maternal employment and family dynamics: The social context of women’s work in rural South India. Population and Development Review, 20 (1),115–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Desai, S. and Johnson, K. (2005). Women’s decisionmaking and child health: familial and social hierarchies.” In S. Kishor (Ed.), A Focus on Gender: Collected Papers on Gender Using DHS Data (pp. 55–68). Calverton, MD: ORC Macro.Google Scholar
  65. Desai, S., & Temsah, G. (2014). Muslim and Hindu Women's Public and Private Behaviors: Gender, Family, and Communalized Politics in India. Demography, 51 (6), 2307–2332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. DeVault, Majorie. (1996). “Talking Back to Sociology: Distinctive Contributions of Feminist Methodology.” Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 29–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. DeVault, M. (2017). “Feminist qualitative research: emerging lines of inquiry.” In N. Denzin and Y, Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. 5th edition (pp. 176–194). Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  68. Deveaux, M. (1994). Feminism and empowerment: A critical reading of Foucault. Feminist Studies 20 (2); 223–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Dixon, R. (1982). Women in agriculture: Counting the labor force in developing countries. Population and Development Review, 8 (3):539–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Dixon-Mueller, R. (1993). Population policy and women’s rights: Transforming reproductive choice. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  71. Dixon-Mueller, R., and Germain, A. (2000). Reproductive health and the demographic imagination. In H. Presser and G. Sen (Eds.), Women’s empowerment and demographic processes: Moving beyond Cairo (pp. 69–94). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Dommermuth, L., Hohmann-Marriott, B., & Lappegård, T. (2017). Gender Equality in the Family and Childbearing. Journal Of Family Issues, 38 (13), 1803–1824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Durrant, V. and Sathar, Z. (2000). Greater investments in children through women’s empowerment: A key to demographic change in Pakistan? New York: Population Council Policy Research Division Working Papers, No. 137.Google Scholar
  74. Edin, K. and Kefalas, M. (2007). Promises I Can Keep. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  75. El Dawla, A. S. (2000). Reproductive rights of Egyptian women: Issues for debate. Reproductive Health Matters, 8 (15), 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. England, P. (2010). The Gender Revolution: Uneven and Stalled. Gender & Society, 24 (2),149–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Errington, S. (1990). Recasting sex, gender and power: A theoretical and regional overview. In J. Atkinson and S. Errington (Eds.) Power and difference: Gender in island southeast Asia (pp.1–58). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Evans, M. (1997). Introducing Contemporary Feminist Thought. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  79. Federici, N., Mason, K. O. & Sogner, S.(Eds.) (1993). Women’s position and demographic change. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  80. Ferree, M. M. (1990). Beyond separate spheres: Feminism and family history. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52 (4): 866–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ferree, M. M., Lorber, J. and Hess, B. (1999). Revisioning Gender. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  82. Folbre, N. (1994). Who pays for the kids? Gender and the structures of constraint. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Folbre, N. (2001). The Invisible Heart: Economics and Family Values. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
  84. Fonow, M. and Cook, J. (Eds.). (1991). Beyond methodology: Feminist scholarship as lived research. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Foucault, M. (1980). The history of sexuality. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  86. Freedman, L. P., and Isaacs, S. (1993). Human rights and reproductive choice. Studies in Family Planning, 24 (1), 18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Furedi, F. (1997). Population and development: A critical introduction. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  88. Ghuman, S., Lee, H. and Smith, H. (2001). Measurement of female autonomy according to women and their husbands: Results from five Asian countries. Paper presented at the Population Association of America Annual Meetings, April 2001.Google Scholar
  89. Ginsburg, F. D. (1989). Contested lives: The abortion debate in an American community. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  90. Glenn, E. N., Chang, G. & Forcey, L. R. (Eds.). (1994). Mothering: Ideology, experience, and agency. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  91. Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the prison notebooks. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  92. Greenhalgh, S. (1990). Toward a political economy of fertility: Anthropological contributions. Population and Development Review, 16(1), 85–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Greenhalgh, S. (1994). Controlling births and bodies in village China. American Ethnologist, 21 (1), 3–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Greenhalgh, S. (1995). Anthropology theorizes reproduction: Integrating practice, political, economic, and feminist perspectives. In S. Greenhalgh (Eds), Situating fertility: Anthropology and demographic inquiry (pp. 3–28). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Greenhalgh, S. (1996). The social construction of population science: An intellectual, institutional, and political history of 20th century demography. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 38, (1), 26–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Greenhalgh, S. (1997). Methods and meanings: Reflections on disciplinary difference. Population and Development Review, 23(4), 819–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Greenhalgh, S. (2001). The discursive turn in the study of gender and population. Population of Association Annual Meeting. March 2001. Panel presentation.Google Scholar
  98. Greenhalgh, S. (2012). On the Crafting of Population Knowledge. Population and Development Review, 38 (1), 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Greenhalgh, S., and Li, J. (1995). Engendering reproductive policy and practice in peasant China: For a feminist demography of reproduction. Signs, 20 (3), 601–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Grosz, E. (1994). Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Hajizadeh M, Nandi, A., and Heymann, J. (2014). Social inequality in infant mortality: what explains variation across low and middle income countries? Social science & medicine, 101, 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Haraway, D. (1988). Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Feminist Studies, 14 (3), 575–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Harding, S. (1986). The Science Question in Feminism. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Harding, S. (1991). Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking from Women’s Lives. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Harding, S. (2006). Gender and Social Inequality: Feminist and Postcolonial Issues. University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  106. Hays, S. (1996). The cultural contradictions of motherhood. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Head, S.K., Zweimueller, S., Marchena, C, & Hoel, E. (2014). Women's Lives and Challenges: Equality and Empowerment since 2000. Rockville, Maryland, USA: ICF International.Google Scholar
  108. Heise, L., Ellsberg, M. & Gottemoeller, M. (1999). Ending violence against women. Population Reports Series L, No. 11. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins Population Information Program.Google Scholar
  109. Higginbotham, E. B. (1992). African-American women’s history and the metalanguage of race. Signs, 17 (2), 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hill, A., Pallitto, C., McCleary-Sills, J., & Garcia-Moreno, C. (2016). A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Selected Birth Outcomes. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 133 (3), 269–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hirsh, M., and Keller, E.F. (Eds.) (1990). Conflicts in feminism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  112. Hodgson, D. (1983). Demography as Social Science and Policy Science. Population and Development Review, 9 (1), 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hodgson, D. (1988). Orthodoxy and Revisionism in American Demography. Population and Development Review, 14 (4), 541–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Hodgson, D. and Watkins, S. C. (1997). Feminists and Neo-Malthusians: Past and Present Alliances. Population & Development Review, 23 (3), 469–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hogan, D., Berhanu, B. & Hailemariam, A. (1999). Household organization, women’s autonomy, and contraceptive behavior in southern Ethiopia. Studies in Family Planning, 30 (4), 302–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Idowu, A. E., Osinaike, M. O., & Ajayi, M. P. (2011). Maternal Health Challenges And Prospects For National Development: A Case-Study Of Badagry Local Government, Lagos State. Gender & Behaviour, 9 (2), 4224–4246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Inhorn, M. (1996). Infertility and patriarchy: The cultural politics of gender and family life in Egypt. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  118. Inhorn, M. C. (2015). Cosmopolitan Conceptions: IVF Sojorns in Global Dubai. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ivry, T. (2009). Embodying Culture: Pregnancy in Japan and Israel. Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Jackson, C. L., Ciciolla, L., Crnic, K. A., Luecken, L. J., Gonzales, N. A., & Coonrod, D. V. (2015). Intimate Partner Violence Before and During Pregnancy: Related Demographic and Psychosocial Factors and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms among Mexican American Women. Journal of interpersonal violence, 30 (4), 659–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Jayaratne, T., and Stewart, A. (1991). Quantitative and qualitative methods in the social sciences: Current feminist issues and practical strategies. In M. Fonow and J. Cook (Eds), Beyond methodology: Feminist scholarship as lived research (pp. 85–106). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Jejeebhoy, S. (1995). Women’s education, autonomy, and reproductive behavior: Experience from developing countries. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  123. Jejeebhoy, S. (1998). Associations between wife-beating and fetal and infant death: Impressions from a survey in rural India. Studies in Family Planning, 29 (3), 300–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Jejeebhoy, S., and Sathar, Z. A. (2001). Women’s autonomy in India and Pakistan: The influence of religion and region. Population and Development Review, 27 (4), 687–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jetter, A., Orleck, A. and Taylor, D. (Eds.). 1997. The politics of motherhood: Activist voices from left to right. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  126. Johnson-Hanks, J. (2018). When The Wages Of Sin Is Death: Sexual Stigma And InfantGoogle Scholar
  127. Mortality In Sub-Saharan Africa. In N.E. Riley and J. Brunson (Eds.), International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes (pp. 153–164). Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  128. Kabeer, N. (1994). Reversed realities. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  129. Kabeer, N. (1999). Resources, agency, achievement: Reflections on the measurement of women’s empowerment. Development and Change, 30 (3), 435–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Kanaaneh, Rhoda Ann (2002). Birthing the Nation: Strategies of Palestinian Women in Israel. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  131. Kaufmann, G., and Cleland, J. (1994). Maternal education and child survival: Anthropological responses to demographic evidence. Health Transition Review, 4 (2), 196–199.Google Scholar
  132. Keller, E. F. (1985). Reflections on gender and science. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Keller, E. F. (1989). Just what is so difficult about the concept of gender as a social category? (Response to Richards and Schuster). Social Studies of Science, 19 (4), 721–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Kelly, J. (1986). Family and society. In Women, history, and theory: The essays of Joan Kelly (pp. 110–156). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kertzer, D., and T. Fricke. (1997). Toward anthropological demography. In D. I. Kertzer and T. Fricke (Eds.), Anthropological demography: Toward a new synthesis (pp. 1–35). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  136. King, L. (2018). Gender in the investigation and politics of ‘low’ fertility. In N. E. Riley & J. Brunson (Eds.), International handbook on gender and demographic processes (pp. 55–69). Springer Publications.Google Scholar
  137. Kishor, S. (1993). May God give sons to all: Gender and child mortality in India. American Sociological Review, 58 (2), 247–265.Google Scholar
  138. Kishor, S. (1994). Autonomy and Egyptian Women: Findings from the 1988 Egypt demographic and health survey. Occasional Papers, No. 2. Demographic and Health Surveys, Calverton, Md.: Macro International.Google Scholar
  139. Kishor, S. (2000). Empowerment of women in Egypt and links to the survival and health of their infants. In H. Presser and G. Sen (Eds), Women’s empowerment and demographic processes: Moving beyond Cairo (pp. 118–156). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  140. Kishor, S. (Ed.). (2005). A Focus on Gender: Collected Papers on Gender Using DHS Data. Calverton, MD: ORC Macro.Google Scholar
  141. Kishor, S. and Neitzel, K. (1996). The Status of Women: Indicators for Twenty-Five Countries. DHS Comparative Studies No. 21. Calverton, Maryland, USA: Macro InternationalGoogle Scholar
  142. Kishor, S., and Parasuraman, S. (1998). Mother employment and infant and child mortality in India. National Family Health Survey Subject Reports. No. 8. Mumbai and Calverton, Md.: Institute for Population Sciences and Macro International.Google Scholar
  143. Kishor, S. and Subaiya, L. (2008). Understanding Women's Empowerment: A Comparative Analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Data. DHS Comparative Reports No. 20. Calverton, Maryland, USA: Macro InternationalGoogle Scholar
  144. Komter, A. (1989). Hidden Power in Marriage. Gender and Society, 3 (2), 187–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Krause, E. L. (2001). “Empty cradles” and the quiet revolution: Demographic discourse and cultural. Cultural Anthropology (Wiley-Blackwell), 16(4), 576–611.Google Scholar
  146. Krause, E. L. (2006). Dangerous Demographies: The Scientific Manufacture of Fear. Corner House, Briefing #36.Google Scholar
  147. Krause, E. L. (2018). Reproduction in Retrospective, Or What’s All the Fuss over Low Fertility? In N.E. Riley and J. Brunson (Eds.), International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes (pp. 73–82). Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  148. Krause, E. L. and De Zordo, S. (2012). Introduction. Ethnography and biopolitics: tracing ‘rationalities’ of reproduction across the north–south divide. Anthropology & Medicine, 19(2), 137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Kuan, T. (2015). Love's Uncertainty: The Politics and Ethics of Childrearing in Contemporary China. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  150. Lather, P. (1991). Getting smart: Feminist research and pedagogy with/in the postmodern. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Lewin, E. (1994). Negotiating lesbian motherhood: The dialectics of resistance and accommodation. In E. Glenn, G. Chang, and L. Forcey (Eds), Mothering: Ideology, experience, agency (pp. 333–353). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  152. Lloyd, C. (1991). The contribution of the world fertility surveys to an understanding of the relationship between women’s work and fertility. Studies in Family Planning, 22 (3),144–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Luker, K. (1985). Abortion and the politics of motherhood. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  154. Maine, D., and Rosenfield, A. (1999). The safe motherhood initiative: Why has it stalled? American Journal of Public Health, 89 (4), 480–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Marchesi, M. (2012). Reproducing Italians: Contested biopolitics in the age of ‘replacement anxiety’. Anthropology & Medicine, 19(2), 171–188.Google Scholar
  156. Martin, E. (1989). The woman in the body: A cultural analysis of reproduction. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  157. Mason, K. O. (1993). The impact of women’s position on demographic change during the course of development. In N. Federici, K. O. Mason, and S. Sogner (Eds.) Women’s position and demographic change (pp. 19–42). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  158. Mason, K. O. (1995). Gender and demographic change: What do we know? IUSSP Paper.Google Scholar
  159. Mason, K. O., and Jensen, A. (Eds.). 1995. Gender and family change in industrialized countries. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  160. Mason, K. O., and Smith, H. L. (2000). Husbands’ versus wives’ fertility goals and use of contraception: The influence of gender context in five Asian countries. Demography, 37 (3), 299–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Mason, K. O., and Taj, A.M. (1987). Differences between women’s and men’s reproductive goals in developing countries. Population and Development Review, 13 (4), 611–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Maynard, M. (1994). Methods, practice, and epistemology: The debate about feminism and research. In M. Maynard and J. Purvis (Eds.), Researching women’s lives from a feminist perspective (pp. 10–26). New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  163. Maynard, M., and Purvis, J. (Eds.). 1994. Researching women’s lives from a feminist perspective. New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  164. McCann, C. (2017). Figuring the Population Bomb: Gender and Demography in the Mid-twentieth Century. University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  165. McCarthy, J. and Maine, D. (1992). A framework for analyzing the determinants of maternal mortality. Studies in Family Planning, 23 (1), 23–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. McClintock, A. (1995). Imperial leather: Race, gender, and sexuality in the colonial contest. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  167. McIntosh, C. A., and Finkle, J. (1995). The Cairo Conference on Population and Development: A new paradigm? Population and Development Review, 21(2), 223–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. McNicoll, G. (1992). The agenda of population studies: A commentary and complaint. Population and Development Review, 18 (3), 399–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Medina, Jose. (2012). The Epistemology of Resistance: Gender and Racial Oppression, Epistemic Injustice and Resistant Imaginations. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  170. Merry, Sally. (2016). The Seductions of Quantification: Measuring Human Rights, Gender Violence, and Sex Trafficking. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  171. Mishtal, J. (2012). Irrational non-reproduction? The ‘dying nation’ and the postsocialist logics of declining motherhood in Poland. Anthropology & Medicine, 19 (2), 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Mohanty, C. T. (1991). Under western eyes: Feminist scholarship and colonial discourses. In C. Mohanty, A. Russo, and L. Torres (Eds.), Third world women and the politics of feminism (pp. 51–80). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  173. Moore, H. (1994). A passion for difference: Essays in anthropology and gender. Oxford: Polity Press (Blackwell).Google Scholar
  174. Morgan, L. M., & Roberts, E. F. (2012). Reproductive governance in Latin America. Anthropology & Medicine, 19 (2), 241–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Morgan, S. P., and Niraula, B. B. (1995). Gender inequality and fertility in two Nepali villages. Population and Development Review, 21 (3), 541–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Mosley, W. H., and Chen, L. (1984). An analytical framework for the study of child survival in developing countries. Population and Development Review (Supplement to Vol. 10: Child Survival: Strategies for Research), 25–45.Google Scholar
  177. Muhuri, P., Blanc, A. & Rutstein, S. (1994). Socioeconomic differentials in fertility. Demographic and health surveys comparative studies No. 13. Calverton, Md.: Macro International.Google Scholar
  178. Murphy, M. (2012). Seizing the Means of Reproduction: Entanglements of Feminism, Health, and Technoscience. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Murphy, Michelle. (2017). The Economization of Life. Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  180. Nawar, L., Lloyd, C. & Ibrahim, B. (1995). Women’s autonomy and gender roles in Egyptian families. In by C. Obermeyer (Ed.), Family, gender, and population in the Middle East: Policies in context (pp. 147–178). Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.Google Scholar
  181. O’Barr, J., Pope, D. & Wyer, M. (Eds.). (1990). Ties that bind: Essays on mothering and patriarchy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  182. Obermeyer, C. M. (1992). Islam, women, and politics: The demography of Arab countries. Population and Development Review, 18 (1): 33–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Obermeyer, C. M. (1993). Culture, maternal health care, and women’s status: A comparison of Morocco and Tunisia. Studies in Family Planning, 24 (6), 354–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Olesen, Virginia. (2017). “Feminist qualitative research in the millenium's first decade.” in N. Denzin and Y, Lincoln (Eds.) The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. 5th edition (pp. 151–175). Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  185. Oppong, C. (1994). Introduction. In A. Adepoju and C. Oppong (Eds), Gender, work, and population in sub-Saharan Africa (pp. 1–16). Geneva: International Labour Office, by James Currey.Google Scholar
  186. Osili, U. O., & Long, B. T. (2008). Does female schooling reduce fertility? Evidence from Nigeria. Journal of Development Economics, 87 (1), 57–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Parreñas, R. (2005). Children of Global Migration: Transnational Families and Gendered Woes. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  188. Petchesky, R. P. (1997). Spiraling discourses of reproductive and sexual rights: A post-Beijing assessment of international politics. In C. Cohen, K. Jones, and J. Tronto (Eds.), Women transforming politics (pp. 569– 587). New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  189. Petchesky, R. P. (2000). Human rights, reproductive health and economic justice: Why they are indivisible. Reproductive Health Matters, 8 (15),12–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Pinnelli, A. (1995). Women’s condition, low fertility, and emerging union patterns in Europe. In K. O. Mason and A. M. Jensen (Eds), Gender and Family Change in Industrialized Countries (pp. 82–101). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  191. Presser, H. B. (1997). Demography, feminism, and the science-policy nexus. Population and Development Review, 23 (2), 295–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Presser, H., and Sen, G. (2000). Women’s empowerment and demographic processes: Laying the groundwork. In H. Presser and G. Sen (Eds.), Women’s empowerment and demographic processes: Moving beyond Cairo (pp. 3–14). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  193. Rajan, S. I., Ramanathan, M. and Mishra, U.S. (1996). Female autonomy and reproductive behaviour in Kerala: New evidence from the recent Kerala Fertility Survey. In R. Jeffery and A. Basu (Eds.), Girls’ schooling, women’s autonomy and fertility change in South Asia, (pp. 268–287). New Delhi: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  194. Rao, V., and Bloch, F. (1993). Wife-beating, its causes and its implications for nutrition allocations to children: An economic and anthropological case study of a rural South Indian community. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, Policy Research Department.Google Scholar
  195. Rees, T. (2017). “Review: Metrics (Vincanne Adams).” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 90 (1), 147–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Reinharz, S. (1992). Feminist methods in social research. New York: Oxford.Google Scholar
  197. Renne, E. (1993). Gender ideology and fertility strategies in an Ekiti Yoruba village. Studies in Family Planning, 24 (6), 343–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Rich, A. (1979). Of Woman Born. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  199. Riley, N. E. (1997). Gender, power and population change. Population Bulletin, 52. Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau.Google Scholar
  200. Riley, N. E. (1998). Research on gender in demography: Limitations and constraints. Population Research and Policy Review, 17 (6), 521–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Riley, N. E. (1999). Challenging demography: Contributions from feminist theory. Sociological Forum, 14 (3), 369–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Riley, N. E. (2003). Gender. Encyclopedia of Population. New York: Macmillan Reference.Google Scholar
  203. Riley N.E. (2005) Demography of Gender. In: Poston D.L., Micklin M. (Eds) Handbook of Population (pp. 109–141). Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  204. Riley. N.E. (2018a). Stratified reproduction. In N.E. Riley and J. Brunson (Eds.), International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes (pp. 117–138). Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  205. Riley, N. E. (2018b). Gender inequality in low-fertility societies: what does China’s experience teach us? In D. Poston (Ed.), Low Fertility Regimes and Demographic and Societal Change (pp. 115–132). Springer Press.Google Scholar
  206. Riley, N.E. and J. Brunson (2018). Introduction. In N.E. Riley and J. Brunson (Eds.), International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes (pp. 1–11). Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  207. Riley, N.E. and D. DeGraff (2018). Measuring Gender in the Context of Demographic Change. In N.E. Riley and J. Brunson (Eds.), International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes (pp. 15–36). Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  208. Riley, N. E., and J. McCarthy. (2003). Demography in the age of the postmodern. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Rindfuss, R. R., and Brewster, K.L. (1996). Childrearing and Fertility. In J. Casterline, R. Lee, and K. Foote (Eds.), Fertility in the United States: New patterns, new theories, (pp. 258–289). New York: Population Council.Google Scholar
  210. Roberts, D. (1998). Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  211. Roberts, D. (2002). Shattered Bonds: The Color of Child Welfare. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  212. Roberts, G. S. (2016). Japan's Evolving Family: Voices from Young Urban Adults Navigating Change. Honolulu: East-West Center Publications.Google Scholar
  213. Rosenfield, A., Min, C. J., & Freedman, L. P. (2007). Making Motherhood Safe in Developing Countries. New England Journal of Medicine, 356 (14), 1395–1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Rothman, B. K. (2000). Recreating motherhood. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  215. Sathar, Z., Crook, N. Callum, C. & Kazi, S. (1988). Women’s status and fertility change in Pakistan. Population and Development Review, 14 (3), 415–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Schatz, E. (2003). Comparing, Contextualizing, and Conceptualizing: Enhancing Quantitative Data on Women's Situation in Rural Africa Demographic Research Special Collection 1, Article 5, 143-174 (19 September 2003).Google Scholar
  217. Schatz, E., & Williams, J. (2012). Measuring gender and reproductive health in Africa using demographic and health surveys: the need for mixed-methods research. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 14 (7), 811–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Scheper-Hughes, N. (1992). Death without weeping: The violence of everyday life in Brazil. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  219. Scheper-Hughes, N. (1997). Demography without numbers. In D. I. Kertzer and T. Fricke (Eds.), Anthropological demography: Toward a new synthesis (pp. 201–222). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  220. Scott, J. (1985). Weapons of the weak: Everyday forms of peasant resistance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  221. Scott, J. (1990). Domination and the arts of resistance: Hidden transcripts. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  222. Scott, J. W. (1986). Gender: A useful category of historical analysis. American Historical Review, 91 (5), 1053–1075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Scott, J. W. (1988a). Deconstructing equality-vs-difference: Or, the uses of post-structuralist theory for feminism. Feminist Studies, 14 (1), 33–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Scott, J. W. (1988b). Gender and the politics of history. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  225. Sen, G., and Batliwala, S. (2000). Empowering women for reproductive rights. In H. Presser and G. Sen (Eds), Women’s empowerment and demographic processes: Moving beyond Cairo, (pp. 15–36). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  226. Sharps, P. W., Laughon, K., & Giangrande, S. K. (2007). Intimate Partner Violence and the Childbearing Year: Maternal and Infant Health Consequences. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 8 (2), 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Singh, S., and Casterline, J. (1985). The socio-economic determinants of fertility. In J. Cleland and J. Hobcraft (Eds.), Reproductive change in developing countries: Insights from the world fertility survey (pp. 199–222). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  228. Smith, H. 1989. Integrating theory and research on the institutional determinants of fertility. Demography 26:171–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Spar, D. (2006). The Baby Business. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  230. Spelman, E. (1988). Inessential woman. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  231. Stone, P. (2008). Opting Out? Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  232. Thomas, Lynn M. (2003). Politics of the Womb: Women, reproduction and the state in Kenya. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  233. Tilly, L. and Scott, J. (1987). Women, work, and family. New York: Methuen.Google Scholar
  234. Tsuya, N. (2000). Women’s empowerment, marriage postponement, and gender relations in Japan: An intergenerational perspective. In H. Presser and G. Sen (Eds.), Women’s empowerment and demographic processes: Moving beyond Cairo (pp. 318–348). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  235. Tsuya, N. (2017). Low fertility in Japan—No End in Sight. Asia-Pacific Issues. No 131. Honolulu: East-West Center.Google Scholar
  236. Tuana, N. (1983). Re-fusing nature/nurture. Women’s Studies International Forum, 6 (6), 621–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Udry, J. R. (1994). The nature of gender. Demography, 31 (4), 561–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Wang, Z. (2017). Finding Women in the State. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  239. Ward, V., Maine, D. & McCarthy, J. (1994). A strategy for the evaluation of activities to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries. Evaluation Review, 18 (4),:438–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Warren, C. (2002). Qualitative interviewing. In J. Gubrium and J. Holstein (Eds.) Handbook of interview research: Context and method (pp. 83–102). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  241. Watkins, S. (1993). If all we knew about women were what we read in Demography, what would we know? Demography, 30 (4), 551–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Watkins, S. C., Rutenberg, N. and Wilkinson, D. 1997. Orderly theories, disorderly women. In G. W. Jones, R. M. Douglas, J. C. Caldwell, and R. M. D’Souza (Eds.), The continuing demographic transition (pp. 213–245). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  243. Weinberger, M. B., Lloyd, C. and Blanc, A. (1989). Women’s education and fertility: A decade of change in four Latin American countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, 15 (1), 4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Wendland, C. (2016). Estimating death: a close reading of maternal mortality metrics in Malawi. In V. Adams (Ed.), Metrics: What Counts in Global Health (pp. 57–81). Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  245. Westoff, C. (1994). What's the world priority task? Finally, control population. New York Times (Feb 6).Google Scholar
  246. White, T. (2000). Domination, resistance, and accommodation in China’s one child campaign. In E. Perry and M. Selden (Eds.) Chinese society: Change, conflict, and resistance (pp. 102–119). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  247. WHO. (2016). Maternal Mortality Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs348/en/Google Scholar
  248. Wies, J. R and Haldane, H.J. (2018). Structures of Violence throughout the Life Course: Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Gender-Based Violence. In N.E. Riley and J. Brunson (Eds.), International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes (pp. 329–340). Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  249. Wilson, K. (2008). Reclaiming 'agency,' reasserting resistance. IDS Bulletin 39, (6), 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Wilson, K. (2018). Unconceived Territory: Involuntary Childlessness and Infertility among Women in the United States. In N.E. Riley and J. Brunson (Eds.), International Handbook on Gender and Demographic Processes (pp. 95–104). Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  251. Williams, J. R. (2010). Doing feminist-demography. International Journal Of Social Research Methodology, 13 (3), 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Wolf, M. (1972). Women and the family in rural Taiwan. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  253. Yamin, A. E., and Maine, D. (1999). Maternal mortality as a human rights issue: Measuring compliance with international treaty obligations. Human Rights Quarterly, 21 (3), 563–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Yanagisako, S., and Collier, J. (1987). Toward a unified analysis of gender and kinship. In J. Collier and S. Yanagisako (Eds.) Gender and kinship: Essays toward a unified analysis (pp. 14–50). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  255. Zaidi, B. and Morgan, S. P. (2017). The second demographic transition theory: review and appraisal. Annual Review of Sociology 43, 473–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bowdoin CollegeBrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations