29 Political Demography
Political demography addresses both the political determinants and the political consequences of demographic change. Over the past few decades the salience of these topics has risen to high levels in most countries and world regions. Passionate controversies about political demography have posed serious challenges to governments, governing elites, international and multilateral organizations, and longstanding provisions of international law.
The political and related social and economic consequences of changes in fertility rates, population size, composition, and density, including differentials among ethnic and religious communities and their impacts on domestic social and political relations, central-local relations, regional income disparities, and political representation;
The political consequences and responses to rising levels of migration, both within and across national borders;
The impacts of differing rates of national demographic change upon military and economic power;
The efficacy and political acceptability of increasingly common government policies designed to affect the size, composition, distribution, and growth rate of national populations.
KeywordsLow fertility: high fertility Demographic transition Pronatalism Economic migration Refugees Asylum Human rights Demographic transformation Military power Workforce Social insurance
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