Advertisement

21 Urban and Spatial Demography

  • Mark FossettEmail author
  • Amber R. Crowell
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

The spectacular growth of urban areas and the rise of large scale urban systems are prominent features of the contemporary spatial distribution of population. A century ago few individual countries were majority urban; in the past decade the world’s population crossed that threshold and is trending toward even higher levels of urbanization. This chapter reviews the macro-level features of urban systems and the micro-level spatial patterns of land use and residential distributions within urban areas. It addresses macro-level questions such as: Why do cities exist?, Why are cities located where they are found?, Why do cities vary in size and direction and magnitude of growth?, Why are cities embedded in hierarchically organized systems? It also addresses micro-level questions such as: How does land use vary spatially within urban areas and why? and What are the patterns and determinants of differential residential distribution and segregation of social groups in urban space?

Keywords

Urban demography Spatial demography Urban ecology Urban system Central place Urban land use Residential segregation Neighborhood change 

References

  1. Abler, R. F., Adams, J. S., and Gould, P. R. (1971). Spatial Organization: The Geographer’s View of the World. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  2. Abrahamson, M. (1996). Urban Enclaves. Identity and Place in America. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alba, R. D. and Logan, J. R. (1991). Variations on two themes: racial and ethnic patterns in the attainment of suburban residence. Demography, 28, 431–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alba, R. D. and Logan, J. R. (1992). Assimilation and stratification in the homeownership patterns of racial and ethnic groups. International Migration Review 26, 1314–1341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alba, R. D. and Logan, J. R. (1993). Minority proximity to whites in suburbs: An individual-level analysis of segregation. American Journal of Sociology, 98:1388–1427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alba, R. D, Logan, J. R., and Stults, B. J. (2000a). The changing neighborhood contexts of the immigrant metropolis. Social Forces, 79 (2), 587–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alba, R. D., Logan, J. R., and Stults, B. J. (2000b). How segregated are middle class African Americans? Social Problems, 47(4), 543–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alderson, A. S. and Beckfield, J. (2004). Power and position in the world city system. American Journal of Sociology, 109, 811–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Alderson, A. S. and Beckfield, J. (2006). ‘Wither the parallel paths? The future of scholarship on the world city system. American Journal of Sociology, 112, 895–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aldrich, H. (1975a). Ecological Succession: A Review of the Literature, Urban Affairs Quarterly, 10, 327–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aldrich, H. (1975b). Ecological succession in racially changing neighborhoods: A review of the Literature, Urban Affairs Quarterly, 10, 327–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alexandersson, G. (1956). The Industrial Structure of American Cities: A Geographic Study of Urban Economics in the U.S. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  13. Alonso, W. (1964). Location and Land Use. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Althauser, R. P. and Wigler, M. (1972). Standardization and component analysis. Sociological Methods and Research, 1, 97–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Anas, A., Arnott, R., and Small, K. A. (1998). Urban spatial structure. Journal of Economic Literature, 36, 1426–1464.Google Scholar
  16. Anderson, E. (1990). Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bahr, H. M. and Gibbs, J. P. (1967). Racial differentiation in American metropolitan areas. Social Forces, 45, 521–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barth, E. A. T. and Noel, D. L. (1972). Conceptual frameworks for the analysis of race relations: An evaluation. Social Forces, 50, 333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Batty, M. (2005). Cities and Complexity Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-Based Models, and Fractals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  20. Beck, E. M and S. E. Tolnay. (1990). The killing fields of the deep South and the market for cotton and the lynchings of blacks, 1882–1930. American Sociological Review, 55, 526–539.Google Scholar
  21. Bell, W. (1953). The social areas of the San Francisco Bay region. American Sociological Review, 18: 39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bell, W. (1955). Economic, family, and ethnic status: An empirical test. American Sociological Review, 20:45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Benard, S. and Willer R. (2007). A wealth and status-based model of residential segregation. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 31, 149–174.Google Scholar
  24. Berry, B. J. L., and Cohen, Y. (1973). Decentralization of commerce and industry: The restructuring of metropolitan America. In L. H. Masotti and J. K. Hadden (editors), The Urbanization of Suburbs, (Pp. 431–455). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  25. Berry, F. J. L. (1979). The Open Housing Question: Race and Housing in Chicago 1966–1976. Pensacola, FL: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  26. Berry, F. J. L. (2004). Epilogue: Spatial analysis in retrospect and prospect. In M. F. Goodchild and D. G. Janelle (editors) Spatially Integrated Social Science, (Pp. 443–445). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Berry, F. J. L. and Horton, F. E. (1970). Geographic Perspectives on Urban Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  28. Berry, F. J. L. and Kasarda, J. D. (1977). Contemporary Urban Ecology. London: MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  29. Bischoff, K. and Reardon, S. F. (2013). Residential segregation by income, 1970–2009. Report prepared for the US2010 project of the Russell Sage Foundation and Brown University.Google Scholar
  30. Black, D. and Henderson, V. (1999). A theory of urban growth. Journal of Political Economy, 107, 252–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Blalock, H. M. (1956). Economic discrimination and negro increase. American Sociological Review, 21, 584–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Blalock, H. M. (1957). Percent nonwhite and discrimination in the South. American Sociological Review, 22, 677–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Blalock, H. M. (1959). Urbanization and discrimination in the South. Social Problems, 7, 146–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Blalock, H. M. (1967). Toward a Theory of Minority Group Relations. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley.Google Scholar
  35. Bobo, L. and Zubrinsky, C. L. (1996). Attitudes on residential integration: Perceived status differences, mere In-Group Preference, or racial prejudice? Social Forces, 74, 883–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bogue, D. J. (1949). The Structure of the Metropolitan Community: A Study of Dominance and Subdominance. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  37. Bollen, K. A. and Appold, S. J. (1993). National industrial structure and the global system. American Sociological Review, 58, 283–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Borchert, J. R. (1967). American metropolitan evolution. Geographical Review, 57, 301–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bourne, L. S. (1971). Internal Structure of the City: Readings on Space and Environment. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Bourne, L. S. and Simmons, J. W. (1978). Systems of Cities: Readings on Structure, Growth, and Policy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Bruch, E. and Atwell, J. (2015). Agent-based models in empirical social research. Sociological Methods and Research, 44 (2), 186–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bruch, E. E. & Mare, R. D. (2006). Neighborhood choice and neighborhood change. American Journal of Sociology, 112, 667–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Brueckner, J. K. (2000). Urban sprawl: Diagnosis and remedies. International Regional Science Review, 23, 160–171.Google Scholar
  44. Brueckner, J. K. and Fansler, D. A. (1983). The economics of urban sprawl: Theory and evidence on the spatial sizes of cities. Review of Economics & Statistics, 65, 479–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Burgess, E. W. (1925). The growth of the city. In R. E. Park, E. W. Burgess, and R. D. McKenzie (editors), The City, (Pp. 47–62). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. Burgess, E. W. (1927). The determination of gradients in the growth of the city. Publications of the American Sociological Society, 21, 178–194.Google Scholar
  47. Burgess, E. W. (1928). Residential segregation in American cities. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 140, 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Burr, J. A., Galle, O. R., and Fossett, M. (1991). Racial occupational inequality in Southern metropolitan areas, 1940–1980: Revisiting the visibility-discrimination hypothesis. Social Forces, 69, 831–850.Google Scholar
  49. Butters, R. D. (1993). The real estate industry’s view of audit results: Comments, In M. Fix and R. J. Struyk (editors) Clear and Convincing Evidence: Measurement of Discrimination in America, (Pp. 153–163). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
  50. Carlino, G. and Kerr, W. R. (2015). Agglomeration and innovation. Pages 349-404 in Duranton, G., Henderson, V., and Strange, W. (eds.) Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Volume 5A. New York, NY. Elsevier.Google Scholar
  51. Castells, M. (1977). The Urban Question. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  52. Castells, M. (1985). High Technology, Space, and Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  53. Chase-Dunn, C. (1984). Urbanization in the world-system: New directions for research, In M. P. Smith (editor) Urban Affairs Annual Review, Volume 26: Cities in Transformation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  54. Chase-Dunn, C. and Hall, T. D. (1993). Comparing world-systems: Concepts and working hypotheses. Social Forces, 71, 851–886,CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Chase-Dunn, C. and Grimes, P. (1995). World-system analysis. Annual Review of Sociology, 21, 387–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Chase-Dunn, C., Kawano, Y., and Brewer, B. (2000). Trade globalization since 1795: Waves of integration in the world-system. American Sociological Review, 65, 77–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Chevan, A. (1982). Age, housing choice, and neighborhood age structure. American Journal of Sociology, 87, 1133–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Chorley, R. J. and Haggett, P. (editors). (1967). Models in Geography. London: Methuen and Company.Google Scholar
  59. Christaller, W. (1933[1966]). Central Places in Germany. Fischer. Translated from Die zentralen Orte in Su¨ddeutschland, by C. W. Baskin. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  60. Clark, C. (1951). Urban population densities. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. 114, 490–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Clark, W. A. V. (2001). Pacific views of urban geography in the 1960s. Urban Geography, 22, 540–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Clark, W. A. V. and Fossett, M. (2008). Understanding the social context of the Schelling model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(11), 4109 – 4114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Cooke, T. J. and Rapino, M. (2007). The migration of partnered gays and lesbians between 1995 and 2000. The Professional Geographer, 59(3), 285–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Cooley, C. H. (1894). The theory of transportation. Publications of the American Economic Association, 9, 312–322.Google Scholar
  65. Corzine, J., Creech, J. C., and Corzine, L. (1983). Black concentration and lynching in the South: Testing Blalock’s power threat hypothesis. Social Forces, 61, 774–796.Google Scholar
  66. Cottrell, W. F. (1951). Death by dieselization: Study in the reaction to technological change. American Sociological Review, 16, 358–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Cowgill, D. O. (1978). Residential segregation by age in American metropolitan areas. Journal of Gerontology, 33, 446–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Craig, S. G., Kolhase, J. E., and Perdue, A. W. (2016). Empirical polycentricity: The complex relationship between employment centers. Journal of Regional Science, 56(1), 25–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Creech, J. C., Corzine, J., and Huff-Corzine, L. (1989). Theory testing and lynching: Another look at the power threat hypothesis. Social Forces, 67, 626–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Cressey, P. F. (1938). Population succession in Chicago: 1898–1930, American Journal of Sociology, 44, 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Crowder, K. (2000). The racial context of white mobility: An individual-level assessment of the white flight hypothesis. Social Science Research, 29, 223–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Crowell, A. and Fossett, M. (2017). Spatial assimilation and place stratification across the United States: A study of metropolitan racial residential segregation. Poster presented at the Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, April 26–28, Denver, Colorado.Google Scholar
  73. Crowell, A. and Fossett, M. (2018). White and Latino locational attainments: Assessing the role of race and resources in U.S. metropolitan residential segregation. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 4(4), 491–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Dear, M. and S. Flusty. (1998). Postmodern urbanism. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 88, 50–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Dear, M. J. (2000). The Postmodern Urban Condition. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  76. Dogan, M. and Kasarda, J. D. (editors). (1988a). The Metropolis Era, Volume I: A World of Giant Cities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  77. Dogan, M. and Kasarda, J. D. (editors). (1988b). The Metropolis Era, Volume II: Mega-Cities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  78. Duncan, O. D. and Duncan, B. (1955). Residential distribution and occupational stratification. American Journal of Sociology, 60, 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Duncan, B. and Lieberson, S. (1970). Metropolis and Region in Transition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  80. Duncan, O. D. (1959). Human ecology and population studies. In P. M. Hauser and O. D. Duncan (editors), The Study of Population, (Pp. 678–716). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  81. Duncan, O. D. (1961). From social system to ecosystem. Sociological Inquiry, 31, 140–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Duncan, O. D. (1964). Social organization and the ecosystem. Pages 37–82 in R. E. L. Faris (editor) Handbook in Modern Sociology. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  83. Duncan, O. D. and Duncan, B. (1955). A methodological analysis of segregation indices, American Sociological Review, 20, 210–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Duncan, O. D. and Duncan, B. (1957). The Negro Population of Chicago. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  85. Duncan, O. D. and Lieberson, S. (1959). Ethnic segregation and assimilation. American Journal of Sociology, 64, 364–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Duncan, O. D., Scott, R. W., Lieberson, S., Duncan, B., and Winsborough, H. H. (1960). Metropolis and Region. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Duranton, G., Henderson, V., and Strange, W. (editors). (2015) Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Volume 5A. Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  88. Duranton, G. and Puga, D. (2015). Urban land use. In G. Duranton, V. Henderson, and W. Strange (editors) Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Volume 5A, (Pp. 467–560). Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  89. Eberstein, I. W. and Galle, O. R. (1984). The metropolitan system in the South: Functional differentiation and trade patterns. Social Forces, 62, 926–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Eberstein, I. W. and Frisbie, W. P. (1982). Metropolitan function and interdependence in the us urban system. Social Forces, 60, 676–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Edmonston, B. and Guterbock, T. M. (1984). Is suburbanization slowing down? Recent trends in population deconcentration in U.S. metropolitan area. Social Forces, 62, 905–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Epstein, J. M. (2006). Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Epstein, J. M., and Axtell, R. (1996). Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Eschbach, K., Hagan, J. M, Rodriguez, N. P., and Zakos, A. (1998). Houston Heights. Cityscapes, 4, 245–259.Google Scholar
  95. Farley, R. (1977). Residential segregation in urbanized areas of the United States in 1970: An analysis social class and racial differentials. Demography, 14, 497–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Farley, R. and Frey, W. H. (1994). Changes in the segregation of whites from blacks during the 1980s: Small steps toward a more integrated society. American Sociological Review, 59, 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Farley, R., Richards, T., and Wurdock, C. (1980). School desegregation and white flight: An investigation of competing models and their discrepant findings. Sociology of Education, 53(3), 123–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Feagin, J. R. (1985). The global context of metropolitan growth: Houston and the oil industry. American Journal of Sociology, 90, 1204–1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Feagin, J. R. (1988). Free Enterprise City. Houston in Political-Economic Perspective. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Feagin, J. R. (1998). The New Urban Paradigm. Critical Perspectives on the City. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  101. Firey, W. (1945). Sentiment and symbolism as ecological variables. American Sociological Review, 10, 140–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Firey, W. (1947). Land Use in Central Boston. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Fischer, M. J. (2008). Shifting geographies: Examining the role of suburbanization in blacks’ declining segregation. Urban Affairs Review, 43(4), 475–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Fischer, M. J. and Tienda, M. (2006). Redrawing spatial color lines: Hispanic metropolitan dispersal, segregation, and economic opportunity. In Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell (editors), Hispanic and the Future of America, (Pp. 100–138). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  105. Ford, R. G. (1950). Population succession in Chicago. American Journal of Sociology, 56, 156–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Fossett, M. (1988). Community-level analyses of racial socioeconomic inequality: A cautionary note. Sociological Methods and Research, 16, 454–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Fossett, M. (2006a). Ethnic preferences, social distance dynamics, and residential segregation: results from simulation analyses. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 30,185–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Fossett, M. (2006b). Including preference and social distance dynamics in multi-factor theories of segregation. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 30, 289–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Fossett, M. (2011). Generative models of segregation: Investigating model-generated patterns of residential segregation by ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 35, 114–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Fossett, M. (2017). New Methods for Measuring and Analyzing Segregation. New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Fossett, M. and Cready, C. (1998). Ecological approaches to the study of racial and ethnic differentiation and inequality. In M. Micklin and D. L. Poston (editors), Continuities in Sociological Human Ecology, (Pp. 157–194). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Fossett, M. and Crowell, A. (2018). Assessing the impact of group income differences on cross-city variation in segregation: Do aggregate regressions provide valid estimates? Poster presented at the Annual Meetings of the Population Association of America, April 26–28, Denver, Colorado.Google Scholar
  113. Fossett, M. and Kiecolt, K. J. (1989). The relative size of minority populations and white racial attitudes. Social Science Quarterly, 70, 820–835.Google Scholar
  114. Fossett, M. and Siebert, T. M. (1996). Long Time Coming: Trends in Racial Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan South Since 1940. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  115. Fossett, M. and Waren, W. (2005). Overlooked implications of ethnic preferences in agent-based models. Urban Studies, 42, 1893–1917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Fox, A. R. (2014). Latino Residential Segregation in the United States: Applying New Methods to Gain New Understandings. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University.Google Scholar
  117. Freeman, L. (2008). Is class becoming a more important determinant of neighborhood attainment for African-Americans? Urban Affairs Review, 44, 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Freeman, L. (2010). African American locational attainment before the Civil Rights Era. City and Community, 9, 235–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Freeman, L. C. and Sunshine, M. H. (1970). Patterns of Residential Segregation. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  120. Frey, W. (1979). Central city white flight: Racial and nonracial causes. American Sociological Review, 44, 425–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Frey, W. (2015). Diversity Explosion: How New Racial Demographics are Remaking America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  122. Frey, W. and Fielding, E. L. (1995). Changing urban populations: Regional restructuring, racial polarization, and poverty concentration. Cityscapes, 1, 1–66.Google Scholar
  123. Frey, W. and Speare, A. (1988). Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the United States. New York, NY: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  124. Frey, W. H. (1985). Mover destination selectivity and the changing suburbanization of metropolitan Whites and Blacks. Demography, 22, 223–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Friedmann, J. and Alonso, W. (editors). (1964). Regional Development and Planning: A Reader. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  126. Frisbie, W. P. (1980a). Urban sociology in the U. S.: The past 20 years. American Behavioral Scientist, 24, 177–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Frisbie, W. P. (1980b). Theory and research in urban ecology: Persistent problems and current progress. In H. M Blalock (editor), Sociological Theory and Research: A Critical Appraisal, (Pp. 203–219). New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  128. Frisbie, W.P. and Kasarda, J. D. (1988). Spatial processes. In N. J. Smelser (editor), Handbook of Sociology, (Pp. 629–666). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  129. Frisbie, W. P. and Niedert, L. (1977). Inequality and the relative size of minority populations: A comparative analysis. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 1007–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Fujita, M. (1989). Urban Economic Theory: Land Use and City Size. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Fujita, M. and Krugman, P. (2004). The new economic geography: Past, present, and future. Papers in Regional Science, 83(1), 139–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Fujita, M. and Ogawa, H. (1982). Multiple equilibria and structural transition of nonmonocentric urban configurations. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 12, 161–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Fujita, M. and Thisse, J. (2002). Economics of Agglomeration: Cities, Industrial Location, and Regional Growth. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Fujita, M. and Thisse, J. F., (2013). Economics of Agglomeration: Cities, Industrial Location, and Regional Growth. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Fujita, M., Krugman, K., and Venables, A. J. (1999). The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions, and International Trade. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Gabaix, X. and Ioannides, Y. M. (2004). The evolution of city size distributions, In J. Vernon Henderson and J. Thisse (editors) The Handbook of Urban and Regional Economics Vol. 4. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  137. Galle, O. R. (1963). Occupational composition and the metropolitan hierarchy: The inter- and intra-metropolitan division of labor. American Journal of Sociology, 69, 260–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Galle, O. R. and Stern, R. (1981). The metropolitan system in the South: Continuity and change. In D. L. Poston and R. H. Weller (editors), The Population of the South, (Pp. 155–174). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  139. Garrison, W. L. (1959). Spatial structure of the economy. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 49, 232–239, 471–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Garrison, W. L. (1960). Spatial structure of the economy. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 50, 357–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Gibbs, J. P. and Martin, W. T. (1959). Toward a theoretical system of human ecology. Pacific Sociological Review, 2, 29–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Glaeser, E. L. and Kahn, M. E. (2004). Sprawl and urban growth. In J. V. Henderson and J-F Thisse (editors) The Handbook of Urban and Regional Economics Vol. 4. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  143. Glaeser, E. L. and Kohlhase, J. (2004). Cities, Regions, and the Decline of Transportation Costs, Regional Science, 83(1), 197–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Goodchild, M. F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GIScience in 2010, Journal of Spatial Information Science, 1, 3–20.Google Scholar
  145. Gordon, D. (1977). Class struggle and the stages of urban development. Pages 55–82 in D. Perry and A. Watkins (editors) The Rise of the Sunbelt Cities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  146. Gordon, D. (1984). Capitalist development and the history of American cities. In W. Tabb and L. Sawyers (editors), Marxism and the Metropolis, (Pp. 21–53). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  147. Gordon, P., Kumar, A. and Richardson, H. (1991). The influence of metropolitan spatial structure on commuting time. Journal of Urban Economics, 26, 138–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Gottdeiner, M. (1983). Understanding metropolitan deconcentration: A clash of paradigms. Social Science Quarterly, 64, 227–246.Google Scholar
  149. Gottdeiner, M. (1985). The Social Production of Urban Space. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  150. Gottdeiner, M. and Feagin, J. R. (1988). The paradigm shift in urban sociology. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 24, 163–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Gottdeiner, M. and Hutchinson, R. (2000). The New Urban Sociology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  152. Guest, A. M. (1972). Patterns of family location. Demography, 9, 159–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Guest, A. M. (1977). Residential segregation in urban areas. In K. P. Schwirian (editor), Contemporary Topics in Urban Sociology, (Pp. 268–336). Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  154. Guest, A. M. (1984). The city. In M. Micklin and H. M. Choldin (editors), Sociological Human Ecology: Contemporary Issues and Applications, (Pp. 277–322). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  155. Hadden, J. K., and Borgatta, E. F. (1965). American Cities: Their Social Characteristics. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  156. Haggett, P. (1965). Locational Analysis in Human Geography. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  157. Hall, M. (2013). Residential integration on the new frontier: Immigrant segregation in established and new destinations. Demography, 50, 1873–1896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Hall, M. and Springfield, J. (2014). Undocumented migration and the residential segregation of Mexicans in new destinations, Social Science Research, 47, 61–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Hannan, M. T. (1979). The dynamics of ethnic boundaries in modern states. In J. W. Meyer and M. T. Hannan (editors) National Development and the World System: Educational, Economic, and Political Change, 19501970, (Pp. 253–275). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  160. Harris, C. and Ullman, E. (1945). The nature of cities. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 242, 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Harris, C. (1943). A functional classification of cities in the United States. Geographical Review, 33, 86–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Harris, R., Sleight, P., and Webber, R. (2005). Geodemographics, GIS and Neighbourhood Targeting. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  163. Harvey, David. (1973). Social Justice and the City. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  164. Hawley, A. H. (1944a). Ecology and human ecology, Social Forces, 22, 398–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Hawley, A. H. (1944b). Dispersion versus segregation: Apropos of a solution of race problems. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, 30, 667–674. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  166. Hawley, A. H. (1950). Human Ecology: A Theory of Community Structure. New York, NY: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  167. Hawley, A. H. (1968). Human ecology. In D. L. Sills (editor), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, (Pp. 323–332). New York, NY: Crowell, Collier, and Macmillan.Google Scholar
  168. Hawley, A. H. (1971). Urban Society: An Ecological Approach. New York, NY: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  169. Hawley, A. H. (1981). Urban Society: An Ecological Approach. New York, NY: J. Wiley.Google Scholar
  170. Hawley, A.H. (1984). Human ecology and Marxian theories. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 904–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Hawley, A. H. 1986. Human Ecology: A Theoretical Essay. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  172. Hawley, A. H. and Rock, V. P. (1973). Residential Segregation in Urban Areas: Papers on Racial and Socioeconomic Factors on Choice of Housing. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  173. Heckman, J. J. and Siegelman, P. (1993). The urban institute audit studies: Their methods and findings. In M. Fix and R. Struyk (editors), Clear and Convincing Evidence: Measurement of Discrimination in America, (Pp. 187–258, 271–276). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.Google Scholar
  174. Heer, D. M. (1959). The sentiment of white supremacy: An ecological study, American Journal of Sociology, 64, 592–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Henderson, J. V. (1974). Size and nature of cities. American Economic Review, 64, 640–656.Google Scholar
  176. Henderson, J. V. and Thisse, J. (editors). (2004). Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics Vol. 4: Urban Economics. Amsterdam: North Holland Press.Google Scholar
  177. Duranton, G., Henderson, J. V. and Strange, W.C. (2015). Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Vol 5A. Amsterdam: North Holland Press.Google Scholar
  178. Hill, R. C. (1977). Capital accumulation and urbanization in the United States. Comparative Urban Research, 4, 39–60.Google Scholar
  179. Hoover, E. M. (1948). Location of Economic Activity. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  180. Howell, F. M., Porter, J. R., and Matthews, S. A. (2016). Recapturing spatial approaches to social science problems. In F. M. Howell, J. R. Porter, and S. A. Matthews (editors), Recapturing Space: New Middle-Range Theory in Spatial Demography, (Pp. 1–8). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Hoyt, H. (1971). Recent distortions of the classical models of urban structure. In L. S. Bourne (editor) Internal Structure of the City: Readings on Space and Environment, (Pp. 84–96). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  182. Hoyt, H. (1939). The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods in American Cities. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  183. Hunter, A. A. (1971). The ecology of Chicago: Persistence and change, 1930–1960. American Journal of Sociology, 77, 421–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Hunter, A. A. (1972). Factorial ecology: A critique and some suggestions. Demography, 9, 107–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Hurd, R. M. (1903). Principles of City Land Values. New York, NY: The Record and Guide.Google Scholar
  186. Huriot, J. and Thisse, J. (editors) (2000). Economics of Cities: Theoretical Perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  187. Hutchinson, R. (1993). The crisis in urban sociology. In R. Hutchinson (editor), Urban Sociology in Transition: Research in Urban Sociology, (Pp. 3–26). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  188. Iceland, J. and Sharp, G. (2013). White residential segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas: conceptual issues, patterns, and trends from the U.S. Census, 1980 to 2010. Population Research and Policy Review, 32, 663–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Iceland, J. and Scopilliti, M. (2008). Immigrant residential segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas, 1990–2000. Demography, 45, 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Iceland, J., Sharp, G., and Timberlake, J. M. (2013). Sun belt rising: regional population change and the decline in black residential segregation, 1970–2009. Demography, 50, 97–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Ikeda, K., Murota, K., and Takayama, Y. (2017). Stable economic agglomeration patterns in two dimensions: Beyond the scope of central place theory. Journal of Regional Science, 57(1), 132–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Isard, W. (1956). Location and Space Economy: A General Theory Relating to Industrial Location, Market Areas, Land Use, Trade, and Urban Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  193. Isard, W. (1960). Methods of Regional Analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  194. Isard, W. (1975). Introduction to Regional Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  195. Jaret, C. (1983). Recent Neo-Marxist urban analysis. Annual Review of Sociology, 9, 499–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Jargowsky, P. A. (1996). Take the money and run: Economic segregation in U. S. metropolitan areas. American Sociological Review, 61, 984–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Jargowsky, P. A. (1997). Poverty and Place: Ghettos, Barrios, and the American City. New York, NY: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  198. Jiobu, R. M. and Marshall, H. H., Jr. (1971). Urban structure and the differentiation between blacks and whites. American Sociological Review, 36, 638–649.Google Scholar
  199. Jones, F. L. and Kelley, J. (1984). Decomposing differences between groups: A cautionary note. Sociological Methods and Research, 12, 323–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Kasarda, J. D. (1972). The theory of ecological expansion: An empirical test. Social Forces, 51, 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Kasarda, J. D. (1985). Urban change and minority opportunities. In P. E. Peterson (editor), The New Urban Reality, (Pp. 33–67). Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  202. Kasarda, J. D. (1995). Industrial restructuring and the changing location of jobs. In R. Farley (editor), State of the Union, Vol. 1: Economic Trends, (Pp. 215–267). New York, NY: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  203. Kasarda, J. D. (1988). Economic restructuring and America’s urban dilemma. In M. Dogan and J.D. Kasarda (editors), The Metropolis Era, Vol. I, (Pp. 56–84). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  204. Kasarda, J. D. and Crenshaw, E. M. (1991). Third world urbanization: dimensions, theories and determinants. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 467–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Kass, R. (1973). A functional classification of metropolitan communities. Demography, 10, 427–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Keyfitz, N. (1965). Urbanization in South and Southeast Asia. In P. M. Hauser and L. F. Schnore (editors), The Study of Urbanization, (Pp. 265–310). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  207. Kim, S. and Shin, E. (2002). a longitudinal analysis of globalization and regionalization in international trade: A social network approach. Social Forces, 81, 445–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. King, D. (1990). Economic activity and the challenge to local government. In D. King and J. Pierre (editors), Challenges to local government, (Pp. 265–287). New York, NY: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  209. Krugman, P. (1991). Geography and Trade. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  210. Krugman, P. (1996). The Self-Organizing Economy. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  211. Lacy, K. (2016). The new sociology of suburbs: A research agenda for analysis of emerging trends. Annual Review of Sociology, 42, 369–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Laurie, A. J. and Jaggi, N. K. (2003). The role of “vision” in neighbourhood racial segregation: a variant of the Schelling segregation model. Urban Studies, 40, 2687–2704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Lichter, D. T. and Johnson, K. M. (2006). Emerging rural settlement patterns and the geographic redistribution of America’s new immigrants. Rural Sociology, 71(1), 109–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Lichter, D. and Johnson, K. (2009). Immigrant gateways and Hispanic migration to new destinations. International Migration Review, 43, 496–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Lichter, D. T., Parisi, D., Taquino, M. C., and Grice, S. M. (2010). Residential segregation in new Hispanic destinations: cities, suburbs, and rural communities compared. Social Science Research, 39, 215–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Lichter, D. T., Parisi, D., and Taquino, M. C. (2015). Toward a new macro-segregation? Decomposing segregation within and between metropolitan cities and suburbs. American Sociological Review 80 (4), 843–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Lieberson, S. (1961a). A societal theory of race relations. American Sociological Review, 26, 902–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Lieberson, S. (1961b). The impact of residential segregation on ethnic assimilation. Social Forces, 40, 52–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Lieberson, S. (1963). Ethnic Patterns in American Cities. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  220. Lieberson, S. (1980). A Piece of the Pie: Blacks and White Immigrants Since 1880. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  221. Lieberson, S. (1985). Making It Count: The Improvement of Social Research and Theory. Berkeley, CA University of California Press.Google Scholar
  222. Lieberson, S. and Waters, M. C. (1988). From Many Strands: Ethnic and Racial Groups in Contemporary America. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  223. Lo, F. and Yeung, Y. (editors). (1998). Globalization and the World of Large Cities. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
  224. Logan, J. R. (1976). Notes on the growth machine: Toward a comparative political economy of place. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 349–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Logan, J. R. (1978). Growth, politics, and the stratification of places. American Journal of Sociology, 84, 404–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Logan, J. R. (2016). Challenges in spatial thinking. In F. M. Howell, J. R. Porter, and S. A. Matthews (editors), Recapturing Space: New Middle-Range Theory in Spatial Demography, (Pp. 11–36). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Logan, J. R., and Stearns, L. B. (1981). Suburban racial segregation as a nonecological process. Social Forces 60:61–73.Google Scholar
  228. Logan, J. R. and Schneider, M. (1984). Racial segregation and racial change in American suburbs, 1970–1980. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 874–888.Google Scholar
  229. Logan, J. R. and Molotch H. L. (1987). Urban Fortunes: The Political Economy of Place. Berkeley, California. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  230. Logan, J. R. and Stults, B. (2011). The persistence of segregation in the metropolis: New findings from the 2010 Census. Census Brief prepared for Project US2010.Google Scholar
  231. Logan, J. R. and Zhou, M. (1989). Do suburban growth controls control growth? American Sociological Review, 54, 461–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Logan J. R., Alba, R. D., and Leung, S. (1996a). Minority access to white suburbs: A multiregional comparison. Social Forces, 74, 851–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Logan, J. R., Alba, R. D., McNulty, T., and Fisher, B. (1996b). Making a place in the metropolis: locational attainment in cities and suburbs. Demography, 33, 443–53.Google Scholar
  234. Logan, J. R., Stults, B., and Farley, R. (2004). Segregation of minorities in the metropolis: two decades of change. Demography, 41, 1–22.Google Scholar
  235. Logan, J. R., Foster, A., Ke, J., and Li, F. (2018). The uptick in income segregation: real trend or random sampling variation? American Journal of Sociology, 124, 185–222.Google Scholar
  236. London, B. and Smith, D. A. (1988). Urban bias, dependence, and economic stagnation in noncore nations. American Sociological Review, 53, 454–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. London, B. (1987). The structural determinants of Third World urban change: An ecological and political economic analysis. American Sociological Review, 52, 28–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Longley, P. (2012). Geodemographics and the practices of geographic information science, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 26, 2227–2237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Margo, R. (1992). Explaining the postwar suburbanization of the population in the United States: The role of income. Journal of Urban Economics, 31, 301–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Markusen, A. R. (1985). Profit Cycles, Oligopoly, and Regional Development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  241. Markusen, A. R. (1987). Regions: The Economics and Politics of Territory. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  242. Markusen, A. R. (2003). Fuzzy concepts, scanty evidence, policy distance: The case for rigour and policy relevance in critical regional studies. Regional Studies, 33, 869–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Markusen, A. R. (2006). Urban development and the politics of a creative class: evidence from the study of artists. Environment and Planning A, 38(10), 1921–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Marshall, H. and Jiobu, R. (1975). Residential segregation in united states cities: A causal analysis. Social Forces, 53, 449–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Massey, D. S. (1985). Ethnic residential segregation: A theoretical synthesis and empirical review. Sociology and Social Research, 69, 315–350.Google Scholar
  246. Massey, D. S. (1990). American Apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 329–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Massey, D. S. (2005). Racial discrimination in housing: A moving target. Social Problems 52 (2), 148–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Massey, D. S., and Denton, N. A. (1985). Spatial assimilation as a socioeconomic process. American Sociological Review, 50, 94–106.Google Scholar
  249. Massey, D. S. and Denton, N. A. (1987). Trends in the residential segregation of blacks, Hispanics, and Asians. American Sociological Review, 52, 802–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Massey, D. S. and Denton, N. A. (1988a). The dimensions of residential segregation. Social Forces, 67, 281–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Massey, D. S. and Denton, N. A. (1988b). Suburbanization and segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas. American Journal of Sociology 94, 592–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Massey, D. S. and Denton, N. A. (1989). Hyper-segregation in US Metropolitan areas: black and Hispanic segregation along five dimensions. Demography, 26, 373–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Massey, D. S. and Denton, N. A. (1993). American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  254. Massey, D. S. and Eggers, M. L. (1990). The ecology of inequality: minorities and the concentration of poverty, 1970–1980. American Journal of Sociology, 95, 1153–1188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Massey, D. S. and Fischer, M. J. (1999). Does rising income bring integration: New results for Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in 1990. Social Science Research, 28, 316–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Massey, D. S. and Mullan, B. P. (1984). Processes of Hispanic and Black Spatial assimilation. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 836–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Mayer, H. M. (1959). The economic base of cities. In H. M. Mayer and C. F. Kohn (editors) Readings in Urban Geography, (Pp. 85–126). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  258. McDonald, J. F. (1989). Econometric studies of urban population density: A survey. Journal of Urban Economics, 26, 361–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. McKee, J. B. (1993) Sociology and the Race Problem: The Failure of a Perspective. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  260. McKenzie, R. D. (1924). The ecological approach to the study of human community. American Journal of Sociology, 30, 287–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. McKenzie, R. D. (1926). The scope of human ecology. Publications of the American Sociological Society, 20, 141–154.Google Scholar
  262. McKenzie, R. D. (1927). The concept of dominance and world organization. American Journal of Sociology, 33, 28–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. McKenzie, R. D. (1933). The Metropolitan Community. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  264. Meyer, D. R. (1984). Control and coordination links in the metropolitan system of cities: The South as a case study. Social Forces, 64, 553–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Meyer, D. R. (1986). The world system of cities: Relations between international financial metropolises and South American cities. Social Forces, 64, 553–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Mills, E. S. (1967). An aggregative model of resource allocation in a metropolitan area. American Economic Review, 57, 197–210Google Scholar
  267. Mills, E. S. (1972) Studies in the Structure of the Urban Economy. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins PressGoogle Scholar
  268. Molotch, H. L. (1976). The city as a growth machine: Toward a political economy of place. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 309–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Mulligan, G. F. (1984). Agglomeration and central place theory: A review of the literature. International Regional Science Review, 9,1–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Muth, R. (1969). Cities and Housing. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  271. Nagel, J. and Olzak, S. 1982. Ethnic mobilization in new and old states: An extension of the competition model. Social Problems, 30, 127–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Namboodiri, K. (1988). Ecological demography: Its place in sociology. American Sociological Review, 53, 619–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Napierala, J., and Denton N. (2017) Measuring residential segregation with the ACS: how the margin of error affects the dissimilarity index. Demography, 54, 285–309.Google Scholar
  274. Noel, D. L. (1968). A theory of the origin of ethnic stratification. Social Problems, 16:157–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Nyden, P, Lukehart, J., Maly, M. T., and Peterman, W. (1998). Overview of the 14 neighborhoods studied. Cityscape, 4,19–27.Google Scholar
  276. Olzak, S. and Nagel, J. (1986). Introduction, competitive ethnic relations: An overview. In S. Olzak and J. Nagel (editors) Competitive Ethnic Relations, (Pp. 1–16). Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  277. Pais, J., South, S., and Crowder, K. (2012). Metropolitan heterogeneity and minority neighborhood attainment: Spatial assimilation or place stratification? Social Problems, 59(2), 258–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Pampel, F. C., and Choldin, H. (1978). Urban location and segregation of the aged: A block-level analysis. Social Forces, 56, 1121–1139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Park, R. E. (1926). The urban community as a spatial pattern and a moral order. In E. W. Burgess (editor), The Urban Community (Pp. 3–20). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  280. Park, R. E. (1936a). Human Ecology, American Journal of Sociology, 42, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Park, R. E. (1936b). Succession: An ecological concept. American Sociological Review, 1, 171–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Park, R. E., Burgess, E. W., and McKenzie, R. D. (1925). The City. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  283. Patterson, O. (1997). The Ordeal of Integration: Progress and Resentment in America’s Racial” Crisis. Civitas/Counterpoint.Google Scholar
  284. Pattillo, M. (2005). Black middle-class neighborhoods. Annual Review of Sociology, 31, 305–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Pattillo-McCoy, M. (2000). The limits of out-migration for the black middle class. Journal of Urban Affairs, 22(3), 225–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Pfeiffer, D. (2012). African Americans’ search for more for “less and peace of mind” on the exurban frontier. Urban Geography, 33(1), 64–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Poston, D. L. and Frisbie, W. P. (1998). Human ecology, sociology, and demography. In M. Micklin and D. L. Poston (editors), Continuities in Sociological Human Ecology, (Pp. 27–50). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Poston, D. L. and Frisbie, W. P. (2005). Ecological demography. In D. L. Poston and M. Micklin (editors) Handbook of Population, (Pp. 601–624). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Poston, D. L., Compton, D. R., Xiong, Q., and Knox, E. A. (2017). The residential segregation of same-sex households from different-sex households in metropolitan USA, circa-2010, Population Review, 56 (2), 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Quillian, L. (1995). Prejudice as a response to perceived group threat: population composition and anti-immigrant and racial prejudice in Europe. American Sociological Review, 60(4), 586–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Quillian, L. (2002). Why is black-white residential segregation so persistent? evidence on three theories from migration data. Social Science Research, 31, 197–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Quillian, L. (2012). Segregation and poverty concentration: the role of three segregations. American Sociological Review, 77(3), 354–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Quillian, L. (2015). A comparison of traditional and discrete choice approaches to the analysis of residential mobility and locational attainment. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 660,240–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Reardon, S. F. and Bischoff, K. (2011). Income inequality and income segregation. American Journal of Sociology, 116(4), 1092–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Reed, J. S. (1972). Percent black and lynching: a test of Blalock’s hypothesis. Social Problems, 50, 356–360.Google Scholar
  296. Rees, P. H. (1968). The Factorial Ecology of Metropolitan Chicago. Masters thesis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  297. Richardson, H. W. (1969). Regional Economics. New York, NY: Praeger.Google Scholar
  298. Roof, W. C. (1972). Residential segregation and social differentiation in American metropolitan areas. Social Forces, 51, 87–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Rossem, R. V. (1996). The world-system paradigm as general theory of development: a cross-national test. American Sociological Review, 61, 508–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Ruggles, S., Flood, S., Goeken, R., Grover, J., Meyer, E., Pacas, J., and Sobek, M. (2018). IPUMS USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS,  https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V8.0 Google Scholar
  301. Schelling, T. C. (1971a). Dynamic models of segregation. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 1, 143–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Schelling, T. C. (1971b). On the ecology of micromotives. The Public Interest, 25, 61–98.Google Scholar
  303. Schelling, T. C. (1972). The process of residential segregation: neighborhood tipping. In A. Pascal (editor), Racial Discrimination in Economic Life, (Pp. 157–184). Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.Google Scholar
  304. Schneider, M. and Phelan, T. (1993). Black suburbanization in the 1980s. Demography, 30, 269–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Schnore, L. (1965). On the spatial structure of cities in the two Americas. Pages 347–398 in P. M. Hauser and L. F. Schnore (editors), The Study of Urbanization. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  306. Schwirian, K. P. (editor). (1977). Contemporary Topics in Urban Sociology. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  307. Schwirian, K. P. (1983). Models of neighborhood change. Annual Review of Sociology, 9, 83–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Schwirian, K. P., Hankins, M., and Ventresca, C. A. (1990). Residential decentralization of social status groups in American metropolitan communities, 1950–1980. Social Forces, 68, 1143–1163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Scott, A. (1988). Metropolis: From the Division of Labor to Urban Form. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  310. Shevky, E. and Bell, W. (1955). Social Area Analysis: Theory Illustrative Application and Computational Procedures. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  311. Shevky, E. and Williams, M. (1949). The Social Areas of Los Angeles: Analysis and Typology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  312. Simkus, A. A. (1978). Residential segregation by occupation and race in ten urbanized areas, 1950–1970. American Sociological Review, 43, 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Smith, D. A. (1995). The new urban sociology meets the old: Re-reading some classical human ecology. Urban Affairs Review 30, 432–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Smith, D. A. and Nemeth, R. J. (1988). An empirical analysis of commodity exchange in the international economy: 1964–80. International Studies Quarterly, 32, 227–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Smith, D. A. and White, D. R. (1992). Structure and Dynamics of the Global Economy: Network Analysis of International Trade, 1965–1980, Social Forces, 70, 857–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Smith, M. and Feagin, J. R. (editors). (1995). The Bubbling Cauldron: Race, Ethnicity, and the Urban Crisis. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  317. Smith, M. and Feagin, J. R. (1987). The Capitalist City: Global Restructuring and Community Politics. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  318. Smock, P. J. and Wilson, F. D. (1991). Desegregation and the stability of white enrollments: A school-level analysis 1968–1984. Sociology of Education, 64, 278–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Soja, E. W. (1997). Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory. Brooklyn, NY: Verso Books.Google Scholar
  320. Soja, E. W. (2000). Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  321. South, S. J. and Crowder, K. D. (1997). Escaping distressed neighborhoods: Individual, community, and metropolitan influences. American Journal of Sociology, 102, 1040–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. South, S. J. and Crowder, K. D. (1998). Leaving the ’hood: residential mobility between black, white, and integrated neighborhoods. American Sociological Review, 63(1), 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. South, S. J., Crowder, K., and Pais, J. (2011). Metropolitan structure and neighborhood attainment: exploring inter-metropolitan variation in racial residential segregation. Demography, 48,1263–1292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. South, S. J. and Poston, D. L. (1980). A note on the stability of the us metropolitan system: 1950–1970. Demography, 17, 445–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. South, S. J. and Poston, D. L. (1982). The US Metropolitan South: Regional Change, 1950–1970, Urban Affairs Quarterly, 18,187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Spielman, S. A. and Thill, J. (2008). Social area analysis, data mining, and GIS, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 32, 110–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. St. John, C. and Clymer, R. (2000). Racial residential segregation by level of socioeconomic status. Social Science Quarterly, 81(3), 701–715.Google Scholar
  328. Stahura, J. M. (1986). Suburban development, black suburbanization, and the Civil Rights Movement since World War II. American Sociological Review, 51,131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Stearns, L. B., and Logan, J. R. (1986). The racial structuring of the housing market and segregation in suburban areas. Social Forces, 65, 28–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Tabb, W. K. and Sawyers, L. (editors). (1984). Marxism and the Metropolis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  331. Taylor, P. J. (2006). Parallel paths to understanding global intercity relations. American Journal of Sociology, 112, 881–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Thernstrom, S. and Thernstrom, A. (1997). America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  333. Thompson, W. (1965). A Preface to Urban Economics. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  334. Timberlake, J. M. and Iceland, J. (2007). Change in racial and ethnic residential inequality in american cities, 1970–2000. City & Community, 6(4), 335–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Timberlake, M. (editor). (1985). Urbanization in the World Economy. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  336. Tolnay, S. E. and Beck, E. M. (1992). Racial violence and black migration in the american south, 1910 to 1930. American Sociological Review, 57, 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Tolnay, S. E., Beck, E. M, and Massey, J. L. (1989). Black lynchings: the power threat hypothesis revisited. Social Forces, 67, 605–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Turner, J. H. (1991). The Structure of Sociological Theory (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  339. Turner, M. A., Ross, S. L., Galster, G. C., and Yinger, J. (2002). Discrimination in Metropolitan Housing Markets: National Results from Phase I HDS (2000). Washington, DC: US Department of Housing and Urban Development.Google Scholar
  340. Turner, M. A., Santos, R., Levy, D. K, Wissoker, D., Aranda, C., Pitingolo, R. (2013). Housing Discrimination Against Racial and Ethnic Minorities, (2012). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research.Google Scholar
  341. Ullman, E. L. (1941). A theory of location for cities. American Journal of Sociology, 46, 853–864.Google Scholar
  342. Ullman, E. L., and Harris, C. (1970). The nature of cities. In Urban Man and Society: A Reader in Urban Ecology. Edited by A. N. Cousins and H. Nagpaul, 91–100. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  343. UN-HABITAT (2010). Urban trends: urban sprawl now a global problem. In State of the World’s Cities 2010/2011. New York: United Nations Human Settlements Programme.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. United Nations. (2018). The 2018 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. New York, NY, Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.Google Scholar
  345. van de Rijt, A., Siegel, D., and Macey, M. (2009). Neighborhood chance and neighborhood change: a comment on Bruch and Mare. American Journal of Sociology, 114, 1166–1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Vance, R. B. and Sutker, S. S. (1954). Metropolitan dominance and integration in the urban south. In R. B. Vance and N. J. Demerath (editors), The Urban South. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina South.Google Scholar
  347. Vernon, R. (1966). International trade and international investment in the product cycle. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 80, 190–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Voss, P. (2007). Demography as a spatial social science. Population Research and Policy Review, 26, 457–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Wallerstein, I. (1974). The Modern World System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  350. Wallerstein, I. (1980). The Modern World System II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-Economy, 1600–1750. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  351. Walters, P. B. (1985). Systems of cities and urban primacy: problems of definition and measurement. In M. Timberlake (editor) Urbanization in the World Economy, (Pp. 63–85). Orlando, FL: Academic Books.Google Scholar
  352. Walther, C. S. and Poston, D. L. (2004). Patterns of gay and lesbian partnering in the larger metropolitan areas of the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 41(2), 201–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Walton, J. (1979). Urban political economy. a new paradigm. Comparative Urban Research, 7, 5–17.Google Scholar
  354. Walton, J. (1981). The new urban sociology. International Social Science Journal, 33, 374–390.Google Scholar
  355. Walton, J. (1993). Urban sociology: the contributions and limits of political economy. Annual Review of Sociology, 19, 301–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Walton, J. (1976). Urban hierarchies and patterns of dependence in Latin America: theoretical bases for a new research agenda. In A. Portes and H. L. Browning (editors) Current Perspectives in Latin American Urban Research, (Pp. 43–70). Austin, TX: Institute for Latin American Studies, University of Texas.Google Scholar
  357. Wanner, R. A. (1977). The dimensionality of the U.S. urban functional system. Demography, 14, 519–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Weber, A. (1929). Theory of the Location of Industries. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  359. Weeks, J. R. (2016). Demography is an inherently spatial science. In F. M. Howell, J. R. Porter, and S. A. Matthews (editors), Recapturing Space: New Middle Range Theory in Spatial Demography, (Pp. 99–122). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. White, M. J. (1987). American Neighborhoods and Residential Differentiation. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  361. Wiese, A. (2004). Places of Their Own: African American Suburbanization in the Twentieth Century. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Wiese, A. (2006). Race, class, and African American suburban dreams in the postwar United States, In K. M. Kruse and T. J. Sugrue (editors) The New Suburban History, (Pp. 99–119). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  363. Wilcox, J. and Roof, W. C. (1978). Percent black and black-white status inequality: southern versus nonsouthern patterns. Social Science Quarterly, 59, 421–434.Google Scholar
  364. Winsborough, H. H. (1961). A Comparative Study of Urban Population Densities. Doctoral Dissertation. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  365. Winsborough, H. H. (1963). An ecological approach to the theory of suburbanization. American Journal of Sociology, 68, 565–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Winship, C. (1977). A revaluation of indexes of residential segregation. Social Forces, 55, 1058–1066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Wong, D. W. (2016). From aspatial to spatial, from global to local and individual: are we on the right track to spatialize segregation measures? In F. M. Howell, J. R. Porter, and S. A. Matthews (editors), Recapturing Space: New Middle-Range Theory in Spatial Demography, (Pp. 77–98). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Yavaş, M. (2018). Dissecting income segregation: impacts of concentrated affluence on segregation of poverty. The Journal of Mathematical Sociology. (Published online June 11)Google Scholar
  369. Yeates, M. (2001). Yesterday as tomorrow’s song: the contributions of the 1960s ‘Chicago school’ to urban geography Urban Geography, 22, 514–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. Yinger, J. (1995). Closed Doors, Opportunities Lost: The Continuing Costs of Housing Discrimination. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  371. Young, H. P. (1998). Individual Strategy and Social Structure: An Evolutionary Theory of Institutions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  372. Zhang, J. (2004a). A dynamic model of residential segregation, The Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 28, 147–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Zhang, J. (2004b). Residential segregation in an all integrationist world. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 54, 533–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Zhang, J. (2011). Tipping and residential segregation: a unified Schelling model. Journal of Regional Science, 51(1), 167–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Zipf, G. (1949). Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort. Cambridge, MA: Addision-Wesley.Google Scholar
  376. Zubrinsky, C. L. and Bobo, L. (1996). Prismatic metropolis: race and residential segregation in the city of the angels. Social Science Research, 25, 335–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.California State University-FresnoFresnoUSA

Personalised recommendations