20 Organizational, Product and Corporate Demography

  • Glenn R. CarrollEmail author
  • Olga M. Khessina
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)


This chapter reviews and explores the use of demographic ideas, models and data in the study of organizations, products and corporations. The chapter discusses four different frameworks analysts use to study these topics, but concentrates on internal organizational demography and corporate demography, as these are more active areas. Within corporate demography, attention is focused on theoretical models of inertia/change, age-dependent mortality, density dependence, resource partitioning and competition. Contributions have been both theoretical and empirical and show notable cumulativity over time. The domains of organization, products and corporations show many opportunities for demographers to apply and extend their analyses of populations and life events.


Organizations Products Corporations Age-dependent mortality Density dependence Resource partitioning 


  1. Abbott, K.W., Green, J.F., and Keohane, R.O. (2016). Organizational ecology and institutional change in global governance. International Organization, 70(2), 247–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcacer, J., and Chung, W. (2007). Location strategies and knowledge spillovers. Management Science, 53(5), 760–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amburgey, T.L., Dacin, T., and Kelly, D. (1994). Disruptive selection and population segmentation: Interpopulation competition as a segregating process. In J. Baum and J. Singh (Eds.) Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations (240–245). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Amburgey, T.L., Kelly, D., and Barnett, W.P. (1993). Resetting the clock: The dynamics of organizational change and failure. Administrative Science Quarterly 38, 51–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aoyama, Y. (2009). Entrepreneurship and regional culture: The case of Hamamatsu and Kyoto, Japan. Regional Studies, 43(3), 495–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Audia, P.G., Freeman, J.H., and Reynolds, P.D. (2006). Organizational foundings in community context: Instruments manufacturers and their interrelationship with other organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51(3), 381–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Audia, P.G., and Rider, C I. (2010). Close, but not the same: locally headquartered organizations and agglomeration economies in a declining industry. Research Policy, 39(3), 360–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barkema, H.G., and Shvyrkov, O. (2007). Does top management team diversity promote or hamper foreign expansion? Strategic Management Journal, 28(7), 663–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barlow, M.A., Verhaal, J.C., and Hoskins, J.D. (2016). Guilty by association: Product-level category stigma and audience expectations in the US craft beer industry. Journal of Management,
  10. Barnett, W. P. (1997). The dynamics of competitive intensity. Administrative Science Quarterly 42, 128–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnett, W. P. (2008). The Red Queen among Organizations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barnett, W.P., Baron, J.N., and Stuart, T.E. (2000). Avenues of attainment: Occupational demography and organizational careers in the California civil service. American Journal of Sociology, 106(1), 88–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barnett, W.P., and Carroll, G.R. (1987). Competition and mutualism among early telephone companies. Administrative Science Quarterly 32, 400–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnett, W.P., and Carroll, G.R. (1995). Modeling internal organizational change. Annual Review of Sociology, 21 (1), 217–236.Google Scholar
  15. Barnett, W.P., Feng, M., and Luo, X. (2012). Social identity, market memory, and first-mover advantage. Industrial and Corporate Change, 22(3), 585–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barnett, W.P., and Hansen, M.T. (1996). The red queen in organizational evolution. Strategic Management Journal, 17(S1), 139–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barnett, W. P., and McKendrick, D. G. (2004). Why are some organizations more competitive than others? Evidence from a changing global market. Administrative Science Quarterly, 49(4), 535–571.Google Scholar
  18. Barnett, W.P., and Pontikes, E.G. (2008). The Red Queen, success bias, and organizational inertia. Management Science, 54(7), 1237–1251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Barnett, W.P., and Sorenson, O. (2002). The Red Queen in organizational creation and development. Industrial and Corporate Change, 11(2), 289–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Baron, J.N., Hannan, M.T., and Burton, M.D. (2001). Labor pains: Change in organizational models and employee turnover in young, high-tech firms. American Journal of Sociology, 106(4), 960–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Baron, J.N., and Newman, A.E. (1990). For what it’s worth: Organizations, occupations, and the value of work done by women and nonwhites. American Sociological Review, 55, 155–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Barron, D. N. (1999). The structuring of organizational populations. American Sociological Review, 64, 421–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Barron, D.N., West, E., and Hannan, M.T. (1994). A time to grow and a time to die: Growth and mortality of credit unions in New York City, 1914–1990. American Journal of Sociology, 100(2), 381–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bartik, T. J. (1985). Business location decisions in the United States: Estimates of the effects of unionization, taxes, and other characteristics of states. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 3(1), 14–22.Google Scholar
  25. Baum, J. A., and Mezias, S. J. (1992). Localized competition and organizational failure in the Manhattan hotel industry, 1898–1990. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 580–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Baum, J. A., and Singh, J. V. (1994). Organizational niches and the dynamics of organizational mortality. American Journal of Sociology, 100(2), 346–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Benner, M. J. (2010). Securities analysts and incumbent response to radical technological change: Evidence from digital photography and internet telephony. Organization Science, 21(1), 42–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bigelow, L. S., Carroll, G. R., Seidel, M. D. L., and Tsai, L. (1997). Legitimation, geographical scale, and organizational density: Regional patterns of foundings of American automobile producers, 1885–1981. Social Science Research, 26(4), 377–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bogaert, S., Boone, C., and Carroll, G.R. (2010). Organizational form emergence and competing professional schemata of Dutch accounting, 1884–1939. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 31, 115–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bogaert, S., Boone, C., Negro, G., and van Witteloostuijn, A. (2016). Organizational form emergence: A meta-analysis of the ecological theory of legitimation. Journal of Management, 42(5), 1344–1373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Boone, C., Brdcheler, V., and Carroll, G.R. (2000). Custom service: Application and tests of resource-partitioning theory among Dutch auditing firms from 1896 to 1992. Organization Studies, 21(2), 355–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Boone, C., Brouwer, A., Jacobs, J., Van Witteloostuijn, A., and De Zwaan, M. (2012). Religious pluralism and organizational diversity: An empirical test in the city of Zwolle, the Netherlands, 1851–1914. Sociology of Religion, 73(2), 150–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Boone, C., Van Witteloostuijn, A., and Carroll, G.R. (2002). Resource distributions and market partitioning: Dutch daily newspapers, 1968 to 1994. American Sociological Review, 67, 408–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Boone, C., and Van Olffen, W. (1997). The confusing state of the art in top management composition studies: A theoretical and empirical review. Research Memorandum No. 97-11. Netherlands Institute of Business Organization and Strategy, Maastricht.Google Scholar
  35. Box, M. (2017). Bring in the brewers: business entry in the Swedish brewing industry from 1830 to 2012. Business History, 59(5), 710–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brüderl, J. and Schüssler, R. (1990). Organizational mortality: The liabilities of newness and adolescence. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 530–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Burt, R.S. (1992). Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Çakmaklı, A.D., Boone, C., and van Witteloostuijn, A. (2017). When does globalization lead to local adaptation? The emergence of hybrid Islamic schools in Turkey, 1985–2007. American Journal of Sociology, 122(6), 1822–1868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Carlos, W.C. 2012. From Surgeries to Startups: How Institutions Shape Entrepreneurial Activity in the Field of Health Care. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Cornell University. Available at SSRN: or
  40. Carlton, D. (1983). The location and employment choices of new firms: An econometric model with discrete and continuous endogenous variables. Review of Economics and Statistics, 65, 440–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Carroll, G.R. (1983). A stochastic model of organizational mortality: Review and reanalysis. Social Science Research, 12, 303–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Carroll, G.R. (1985). Concentration and specialization: Dynamics of niche width in populations of organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 90, 1262–1283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Carroll, G.R. (1997). Long-term evolutionary change in organizational populations. Industrial and Corporate Change, 6, 119–143.Google Scholar
  44. Carroll, G.R., and Delacroix, J. (1982). Organizational mortality in the newspaper industries of Argentina and Ireland: An ecological approach. Administrative Science Quarterly, 27, 169–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Carroll, G.R., Dobrev, S., and Swaminathan, A. (2002). Organizational processes of resource partitioning. Research in Organizational Behavior, 24, 1–40. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Carroll, G.R., Feng, M., and Kuilman, J.G. (2014). The handover in Hong Kong: Impact on business formation. Sociological Science, 1, 366–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Carroll, G.R., and Hannan, M.T. (1989). Density delay in the evolution of organizational populations: A model and five empirical tests. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34, 411–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Carroll, G.R., and Hannan, M.T. (2000). The Demography of Corporations and Industries. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Press.Google Scholar
  49. Carroll, G.R., and Harrison, J.R. (1998). Organizational demography and culture: Insights from a formal model and simulation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43, 637–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Carroll, G.R., Haveman, H.A., and Swaminathan, A. (1990). Karrieren in organizationen: Eine okologische perspektive Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie. Sonderheft, 31, 146–178.Google Scholar
  51. Carroll, G.R., Haveman, H.A., and Swaminathan, A. (1992). Careers in organizations: An ecological view. In D. Featherman et al. Life-Span Development and Behavior Volume 11 (111-44). Hillsdale, NJ: Earlbaum.Google Scholar
  52. Carroll, G.R., Khessina, O.M., and McKendrick, D.G. (2010). The social lives of products: Analyzing product demography for management theory and practice Academy of Management Annals, 4, 157–203.Google Scholar
  53. Carroll, G.R., and Swaminathan, A. (2000). Why the microbrewery movement? Organizational dynamics of resource partitioning in the American brewing industry after Prohibition. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 715–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Carroll, G.R., and Teo, A.C. (1996). Creative self-destruction among organizations: An empirical study of technical innovation and organizational failure in the American automobile industry, 1885–1981. Industrial and Corporate Change, 5, 619–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Castellaneta, F., and Salvato, C. (2017). Culminating events and time working together in top management teams: Insights from private equity. Long Range Planning, Forthcoming. Google Scholar
  56. Cattani, G., Ferriani S., Negro G, and Perretti, F. (2008). The structure of consensus: Network ties, legitimation, and exit rates of US feature film producer organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 53, 145–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Chakrabarti, A. (2015). Organizational adaptation in an economic shock: The role of growth reconfiguration. Strategic Management Journal, 36, 1717–1738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Cole, S. (2001). What’s wrong with sociology? In S. Cole (Ed.) What’s Wrong with Sociology? New Brunswick NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  59. Coleman, J.S. (1990). Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Connor, J.M. (1981). Food product proliferation: A market structure analysis. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 63, 607–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Cottrell, T., and Nault, B.R. (2004). Product variety and firm survival in the microcomputer software industry. Strategic Management Journal, 25, 1005–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dahl, M.S. (2011). Organizational change and employee stress. Management Science, 53, 240–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dahl, M.S., and Reichstein, T. (2007). Are you experienced? Prior experience and the survival of new organizations. Industry and Innovation, 14, 497–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dahl, M.S., and Sorenson, O. (2009). The embedded entrepreneur. European Management Review, 6, 172–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Dahl, M.S., and Sorenson, O. (2012). Home Sweet Home: Entrepreneurs’ location choices and the performance of their ventures. Management Scien ce, 58, 1059–1071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Dahl, M.S., and Sorenson, O. (2014). The who, why and how of spin-offs. Industrial and Corporate Change, 23, 661–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Delacroix, J., and Swaminathan, A. (1991). Cosmetic, speculative, and adaptive organizational change in the wine industry: A longitudinal study. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 631–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Denrell, J., and Kovacs, B. (2008). Selective sampling of empirical settings in organizational studies. Administrative Science Quarterly, 53, 109–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Dobrev, S.D., and Carroll, G.R. (2003). Size (and competition) among organizations: modeling scale-based selection among automobile producers in four major countries, 1885–1981. Strategic Management Journal, 24, 541–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Dobrev, S.D., and Gotsopoulos, A. (2010). Legitimacy vacuum, structural imprinting, and the first-mover disadvantage. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 1153–1174.Google Scholar
  71. Dobrev, S.D., and Kim, T-Y. (2006). Positioning among organizations in a population: moves between market segments and the evolution of industry structure. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51, 230–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Dobrev, S.D., Kim T-Y., and Carroll, G.R. (2002). The evolution of organizational niches: U.S. automobile manufacturers, 1885–1981. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47, 233–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Dobrev, S.D., Kim T-Y., and Hannan, M.T. (2001). Dynamics of niche width and resource partitioning. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 1299–1337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Dobrev, S.D., Ozdemir S.Z., and Teo, A.C. (2006). The ecological interdependence of emergent and established organizational populations: Legitimacy transfer, violation by comparison, and unstable identities. Organization Science, 17, 577–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Doeringer, P.B., and Piore, M.J. (1971). Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis. Lexington, MA: Heath.Google Scholar
  76. Edman, J., and Ahmadjian, C.L. (2017). Empty categories and industry emergence: The rise and fall of Japanese Ji-biru. In M-D.L. Seidel and H.R. Greve (Eds.) Emergence Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Volume 50 (109–140). England: Emerald Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  77. Fichman, M., and Levinthal, D.A. (1991). Honeymoons and the liability of adolescence: A new perspective on duration dependence in social and organizational relationships. Academy of Management Review, 16, 442–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fier, A., and Woywode, M. (1994). Unternehmensgründungen im Ostdeutschen Transformationsprozess, in: ZEW Wirtschaftsanalysen: 237–260. Bd. No. 3, Baden-Baden.Google Scholar
  79. Figueiredo, O., Guimarães, P., and Woodward, D. (2002). Home-field advantage: Location decisions of Portuguese entrepreneurs. Journal of Urban Economics, 52, 341–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Finkelstein, S., and Hambrick, D. (1996). Strategic Leadership. St. Paul, MI: West.Google Scholar
  81. Flatt, S. (1993). The innovative edge: How top management team demography makes a difference. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of California at Berkeley.Google Scholar
  82. Freeman, J.H., and Audia, P.G. (2006). Community ecology and the sociology of organizations. Annual Review of Sociology, 32, 145–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Freeman, J., Carroll G.R., and Hannan, M.T. (1983). The liability of newness: Age dependence in organizational death rates. American Sociological Review, 48, 692–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Freeman, J., and Hannan, M.T. (1983). Niche width and the dynamics of organizational populations. American Journal of Sociology, 88, 1116–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Freeman, J., Larsen E.R., and Lomi, A. (2012). Why is there no cannery in ‘Cannery Row’? Exploring a behavioral simulation model of population extinction. Industrial and Corporate Change, 21, 99–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. García-Díaz, C., van Witteloostuijn, A., and Péli, G. (2015). Micro-level adaptation, macro-level selection, and the dynamics of market partitioning. PloS one, 10(12), e0144574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gjerløv-Juel, P., and Dahl, M.S. (2012). Spin-off growth and job creation: Evidence on Denmark. In G.Buenstorf (ed.), Evolution, Organization and Economic Behavior (197–221). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  88. Glick, W.H., Miller, C.C., and Huber, G.P. (1993). The import of upper-echelon diversity on organizational performance. In G.P.Hubber and W.H. Glick (Eds.) Organizational Change and Redesign (176–214). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Glynn, M.A., and Abzug, R. (2002). Institutionalizing identity: Symbolic isomorphism and organizational names. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 267–280.Google Scholar
  90. Gray, V., and Lowery, D. (1996). The Population Ecology of Interest Representation. Lobbying Communities in the American States. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Greenhut, M.L. (1956). Plant Location in Theory and in Practice: The Economics of Space. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  92. Greenstein, S.M., and Wade, J.B. (1998). The product life cycle in the commercial mainframe computer market, 1968–1982. The Rand Journal of Economics, 29, 772–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Greve, H.R., Pozner, J-E., and Rao, H. (2006). Vox Populi: Resource partitioning, organizational proliferation, and the cultural impact of the insurgent microradio movement. American Journal of Sociology, 112, 802–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Greve, H.R., and Rao, H. (2017). Disasters and community resilience: Spanish flu and the formation of retail cooperatives in Norway. Academy of Management Journal, doi:
  95. Hambrick, D.C., Cho, T.S., and. Chen, M-J. (1996). The influence of top management heterogeneity on firms’ competitive moves. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 659–684.Google Scholar
  96. Han, J. (1998). The evolution of the Japanese banking industry: An ecological analysis, 1873–1945. Ph.D. dissertation. Stanford University.Google Scholar
  97. Hannan, M.T. (1986). Competitive and institutional processes in organizational ecology. Technical Report 86–13, Department of Sociology, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  98. Hannan, M.T. (1997). Inertia, density and the structure of organizational populations: Entries in European automobile industries, 1886–1981. Organization Studies, 18, 193–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hannan, M.T. (1998). Rethinking age dependence in organizational mortality: Logical formalizations. American Journal of Sociology, 104, 85–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hannan, M.T. (2010). Partial memberships in categories and audiences. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 159–181.Google Scholar
  101. Hannan, M.T., Baron, J., Hsu, G., and Koçak, Ö. (2006). Organizational identities and the hazard of change. Industrial and Corporate Change, 15, 755–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hannan, M.T., and Carroll, G.R. (1992). Dynamics of Organizational Populations: Density, Legitimation, and Competition. Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Hannan, M.T., and Carroll, G.R. (1995). Theory building and cheap talk about legitimation: Reply to Baum and Powell. American Sociological Review, 60, 539–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hannan, M.T., Carroll, G.R., Dobrev, S.D., and Han, J. (1998a). Organizational mortality in European and American automobile industries, Part I: Revisiting the effects of age and size. European Sociological Review, 14, 279–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hannan, M.T., Carroll, G.R., Dobrev, S.D., Han, J., and Torres, J.C. (1998b). Organizational mortality in European and American automobile industries, Part II: Coupled clocks. European Sociological Review, 14, 303–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hannan, M.T., Carroll, G.R., Dundon, E.A., and Torres, J.C. (1995). Organizational evolution in a multinational context: Entries of automobile manufacturers in Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. American Sociological Review, 60, 509–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hannan, M.T., Carroll, G.R., and Pólos, L. (2003a). The organizational niche. Sociological Theory, 21, 309–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hannan, M.T., and Freeman, J. (1977). The population ecology of organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 82, 929–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hannan, M.T., and Freeman, J. (1984). Structural inertia and organizational change. American Sociological Review, 49, 149–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hannan, M.T., and Freeman, J. (1989). Organizational Ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Hannan, M.T., Pólos, L., and Carroll, G.R. (2003). Cascading organizational change. Organization Science, 14, 463–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hannan, M.T., Pólos, L., and Carroll, G.R. (2007). The Logics of Organizational Theory: Audiences, Codes and Ecologies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Hannan, M.T., Ranger-Moore J., and Banaszak-Holl, J. (1990). Competition and the evolution of organizational size distributions. In J. Singh (Ed.) Organizational Evolution: New Directions (246–68). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  114. Hargens, L.L. (2000). Using the literature: Reference networks, reference contexts and the social structure of scholarship. American Sociological Review, 65, 846–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hauser, P.M., and Duncan, O.D. (1959). The Study of Population. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  116. Haveman, H.A. (1992). Between a rock and a hard place: Organizational change and performance under conditions of fundamental environmental transformation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 48–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Haveman, H.A. (1995). The demographic metabolism of organizations: Industry dynamics, turnover, and tenure distributions. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 586–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Haveman, H.A., and Cohen, L.E. (1994). The ecological dynamics of careers: The impact of organizational founding, dissolution, and merger on job mobility. American Journal of Sociology, 100, 104–152.Google Scholar
  119. Head, K., Ries J., and Swenson, D. (1995). Agglomeration benefits and location choice: Evidence from the Japanese manufacturing investments in the United States. Journal of International Economics, 38, 223–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Hedstrom, P. (1992). Is organizational ecology at an impasse? Review of Dynamics of Organizational Populations by M.T. Hannan and G.R. Carroll. Contemporary Sociology, 21, 751–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Henisz, W.J., and Macher, J.T. (2004). Firm- and country-level trade-offs and contingencies in the evaluation of foreign investments: The semiconductor industry, 1994–2002. Organizations Science, 15, 537–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Holburn, G.L., and Zelner, B.A. (2010). Political capabilities, policy risks and international investment strategy: Evidence from the global electric power generation industry. Strategic Management Journal, 31, 1290–1315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hsu, G., and Hannan, M.T. (2005). Identities, genres, and organizational forms. Organization Science, 16, 474–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Hyytinen, A., M. Pajarinen, M., and P. Rouvinen. (2015). Does innovativeness reduce startup survival rates? Journal of Business Venturing, 30, 564–581.Google Scholar
  125. Ingram, P., and Simons, T. (2000). State formation, ideological competition, and the ecology of Israeli workers cooperatives, 1920–1992. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45, 25–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Jaffe, A., Trajtenberg M., and Henderson R. (1993). Geographic localization of knowledge spillovers as evidenced by patent citations. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108, 577–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Jaffee, J. (2000). The resource partitioning of a corporate legal market: The proliferation of specialist law firms in Silicon Valley, 1966–1997. Presented at American Sociological Association Meetings, August, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  128. Jha, H.K., and Beckman, C.M. (2017). A patchwork of identities: Emergence of charter schools as a new organizational form. In M-D.L. Seidel, and H.R. Greve (Eds.) Emergence (Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Volume 50) (69–107). England: Emerald Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  129. Josefy, M.A., Harrison, J.S., Sirmon, D.G., and Carnes C. (2017). Living and dying: Synthesizing the literature on firm survival and failure across stages of development. Academy of Management Annals, 11, 770–799; DOI:
  130. Kalnins, A., and Chung, W. (2004). Resource-seeking agglomeration: A study of market entry in the lodging industry. Strategic Management Journal, 25, 689–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Kalnins, A., and Chung, W. (2006). Social capital, geography, and survival: Gujarati immigrant entrepreneurs in the U.S. lodging industry. Management Science, 52, 233–247.Google Scholar
  132. Keck, S.L. (1997). Top management team structure: Differential effects by environmental context. Organization Science, 8, 143–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Keyfitz, N. (1973). Individual mobility in a stationary population. Population Studies, 27, 335–352.Google Scholar
  134. Keyfitz, N. (1977). Applied Mathematical Demography. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  135. Khaire, M. (2017). The importance of being independent: The role of intermediaries in creating market categories. In R.Durand, N. Granqvist, and A. Tyllström (ed.) From Categories to Categorization: Studies in Sociology, Organizations and Strategy at the Crossroads (Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Volume 51) (259–293). England: Emerald Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  136. Khaire, M., and Wadhwani, R.D. (2010). Changing landscapes: The construction of meaning and value in a new market category – Modern Indian art. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 1281–1304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Khessina, O.M. (2003). Entry Mode, Technological Innovation and Firm Survival in the Worldwide Optical Disk Drive Industry, 1983–1999. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  138. Khessina, O.M. (2006). Direct and indirect effects of product portfolio on firm survival in the worldwide optical disk drive industry, 1983–1999. In J.A.C. Baum, S.D. Dobrev, and A. van Witteloostujin (Eds.), Ecology and Strategy: Advances in Strategic Management (Vol. 23; 591–630). Oxford: JAI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Khessina, O.M., and Carroll, G.R. (2008). Product demography of de novo and de alio firms in the optical disk drive industry, 1983–1999. Organization Science, 19, 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Khessina, O.M., Goncalo, J.A., and Krause, V. (2018). It’s time to sober up: The direct costs, side effects and long-term consequences of creativity and innovation. Research in Organizational Behavior, 38, 107–135.Google Scholar
  141. Khessina, O.M., and Reis, S.D. (2016). The limits of reflected glory: The beneficial and harmful effects of product name similarity in the U.S. network TV program industry, 1944–2003. Organization Science, 27, 411–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Khessina, O.M., and Romanelli, E. (2007). Regional industrial identity and spatial arrangements in the U.S. biotherapeutics industry, 1976–2004. Johnson School Research Paper Series No. 07-07. Available at SSRN: or CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Krugman, P. (1991). Geography and Trade. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  144. Kuilman, J.G., and Li, J.T. (2009). Grades of membership and legitimacy spillovers: Foreign banks in Shanghai, 1847–1935. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 229–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Lander, M.W., and Heugens, P.P. (2017). Better together: Using meta-analysis to explore complementarities between ecological and institutional theories of organization. Organization Studies, 38, 1573–1601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Larson, E.L. (2001). Evolution’s Workshop: God and Science on the Galapagos Islands. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  147. Lawrence, B.S. (1997). The Black Box of organizational demography. Organization Science, 8, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Le Mens, G., Hannan, M.T., and Pólos, L. (2011). Founding conditions, learning, and organizational life chances: Age dependence revisited. Administrative Science Quarterly, 56, 95–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Le Mens, G., Hannan, M.T., and Pólos, L. (2014). Organizational obsolescence, drifting tastes, and age dependence in organizational life chances. Organization Science, 26, 550–570.Google Scholar
  150. Levitt, B., and March, J.G. (1988). Organizational learning. Annual Review of Sociology 14, 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Liu, M., and Wezel, F.C. (2015). Davids against Goliath? Collective identities and the market success of peripheral organizations during resource partitioning. Organization Science, 26, 293–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Lomi, A., Larsen, E.R., and Freeman, J.H. (2005). Things change: Dynamic resource constraints and system-dependent selection in the evolution of organizational populations. Management Science, 51, 882–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. March, J. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2, 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Marshall, A. (1922). Principles of Economics, 8th ed. London: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  155. McCain, B., O’Reilly, C.A., and Pfeffer, J. (1983). The effects of departmental demography on turnover. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 626–641.Google Scholar
  156. McKendrick, D.G., and Carroll, G.R. (2001). On the genesis of organizational forms: Evidence from the market for disk drive arrays. Organization Science, 12, 661–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. McKendrick, D.G., and Hannan, M.T. (2014). Oppositional identities and resource partitioning: Distillery ownership in Scotch whisky, 1826–2009. Organization Science, 25, 1272–1286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. McKendrick, D.G., Jaffee, J., Carroll, G.R., and Khessina, O.M. (2003). In the bud? Disk array producers as a (possibly) emergent organizational form. Administrative Science Quarterly, 48, 60–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. McKendrick, D.G., Wade, J.B., and Jaffee, J. (2009). A good riddance? Spin-offs and the technological performance of parent firms. Organization Science, 20, 979–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. McPherson, M. (1983). An ecology of affiliation. American Sociological Review, 48, 519–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Melville, H. (1987). The encantadas, or enchanted islands. In H. Melville (Ed.) The Piazza Tales and other Prose Pieces 1839–1860 (125–173). Evanston and Chicago: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  162. Meyer, J.W., and Rowan, B. (1977). Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83, 340–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Minkoff, D.C. (1997). The sequencing of social movements. American Sociological Review, 62, 779–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Minkoff, D.C. (1999). Bending with the wind: Change and adaptation for women’s and racial minority organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 104, 1666–1703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Moral, M.J., and Jaumandreu, J. (2007). Automobile demand, model cycle and age effects. Spanish Economic Review, 9, 193–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Murphy, L. (2004). The Big Book of Concepts. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,Google Scholar
  167. Navis, C., and Glynn, M.A. (2010). How new market categories emerge: Temporal dynamics of legitimacy, identity, and entrepreneurship in satellite radio, 1990–2005. Administrative Science Quarterly, 55, 439–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Negro, G., Hannan, M.T., and Rao, H. (2010). Categorical contrast and niche width: Critical success in winemaking. Industrial and Corporate Change, 19, 1397–1425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Negro, G., Perretti, F., and Carroll, G.R. (2013). Challenger groups, commercial organizations, and policy enactment: An empirical study of local lesbian/gay rights ordinances from 1972 to 2008. American Journal of Sociology, 119, 790–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Negro, G., Visentin F., and Swaminathan, A. (2014). Resource partitioning and the organizational dynamics of ‘Fringe Banking.’ American Sociological Review, 79, 680–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Nelson, R., and Winter, S. (1982). An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  172. Nownes, A.J. (2010). Density dependent dynamics in the population of transgender interest groups in the United States, 1964–2005. Social Science Quarterly, 91, 689–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Nownes, A.J. (2015). Organizational demography research in the United States. In D. Lowery, D. Halpin, and V. Gray (Eds.). Organizational Ecology of Interest Communities: Assessment and Agenda (17–36). Book Series: Interest Groups Advocacy and Democracy Series.Google Scholar
  174. Nownes, A.J, and Lipinski, D. (2005). The population ecology of interest group death: Gay and lesbian rights interest groups in the United States, 1948–1998. British Journal of Political Science, 35, 303–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Olzak, S., and Uhrig, S.C.N. (2001). The ecology of tactical overlap among new social movements in West Germany. American Sociological Review, 66, 694–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. O’Reilly, C.A., Caldwell, D., and Barnett, W.P. (1989). Work group demography, social integration, and turnover. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34, 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Owen-Smith, J., and Powell, W.W. (2004). Knowledge networks as channels and conduits: The effects of spillovers in the Boston biotechnology community. Organization Science, 15, 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Park, D., and Podolny, J.M. (2000). The competitive dynamics of status and niche width: U.S. investment banking, 1920–1950. Industrial and Corporate Change, 9, 377–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Parwada, J.T. (2008). The genesis of home bias? The location and portfolio choices of investment company start-ups. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 43, 245–266.Google Scholar
  180. Péli, G. (1997). The niche hikers guide to population ecology: A reconstruction of niche theory using logic. In A. Raftery (Ed.) Sociological Methodology 1997 (1–46). Cambridge: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  181. Péli, G., and Nooteboom, B. (1999). Market partitioning and the geometry of resource space. American Journal of Sociology, 104, 1132–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Péli, G., Pólos L., and Hannan, M.T. (2000). Back to inertia: Theoretical implications of alternative styles of logical formalization.'' Sociological Theory, 18, 193–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Perretti, F., Negro G., and Lomi, A. (2008). E Pluribus Unum: Framing, matching, and form emergence in U.S. television broadcasting, 1940–1960. Organization Science, 19, 533–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Petersen, T., and Morgan, L.A. (1995). Separate and unequal: Occupation-establishment sex segregation and the gender wage gap. American Journal of Sociology, 101, 329–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Pfeffer, J. (1983). Organizational demography. In L. Cummings, and B. Staw (Eds.) Research in Organizational Behavior, Volume 5 (299–357). Greenwich, CT: JAI.Google Scholar
  186. Pfeffer, J. (1993). Barriers to the advance of organizational science: Paradigm development as a dependent variable. Academy of Management Review, 18, 599–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Pfeffer, J., and Salancik, G.R. (1978). The External Control of Organizations. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  188. Phillips, D.J. (2001). The Promotion Paradox: Organizational mortality and employee promotion chances in Silicon Valley law firms, 1946–1996. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 1058–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Podolny, J.M. (2005). Status Signals: A Sociological Study of Market Competition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  190. Podolny, J.M., Stuart, T.E., and Hannan, M.T. (1996). Networks, knowledge, and niches: competition in the worldwide semiconductor industry, 1984–1991. American Journal of Sociology, 102, 659–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Pólos, L., and M.T. Hannan. 2001. Nonmonotonicity in theory building. In A. Lomi and E. Larsen (Eds.) Dynamics of Organizations: Computational Modeling and Organization Theory (405–38) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  192. Pólos, L., and M.T. Hannan. (2002). Reasoning with partial knowledge. In R.M. Stolzenberg (Ed.) Sociological Methodology 2002 (133–182). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  193. Pólos, L., Hannan M.T., and Carroll, G.R. (2002). Foundations of a theory of social forms. Industrial and Corporate Change, 11, 85–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Pontikes, E.G., and Barnett, W.P. (2015). The persistence of lenient market categories. Organization Science, 26, 1415–1431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Powell, W.W., White, D.R., Koput, K.W., and Owen-Smith, J. 2005. Network dynamics and field evolution: The growth of interorganizational collaboration in the life sciences. American Journal of Sociology, 110, 1132–1205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Ranger-Moore J., Breckenridge R.S., and Jones D.L. (1995). Patterns of growth and size-localized competition in the New York state life insurance industry, 1860–1985. Social Forces, 73, 1027–1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Rao, H. 2009. Market Rebels: How Activists Make or Break Radical Innovations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  198. Rao, H., Monin P., and Durand, R. (2003). Institutional change in Toque Ville: Nouvelle cuisine as an identity movement in French gastronomy. American Journal of Sociology, 108, 795–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Reis, S., Negro, G., Sorenson, O., Perretti, F., and Lomi. A. (2013). Resource partitioning revisited: Evidence from Italian television broadcasting. Industrial and Corporate Change, 22, 459–487.Google Scholar
  200. Romanelli, E., and Khessina, O.M. (2005). Regional industrial identity: Cluster configurations and economic development. Organization Science. 16, 344–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Rosa, J.A., Porac, J.F., Runser-Spanjol, J., and Saxon, M.S. (1999). Sociocognitive dynamics in a product market. Journal of Marketing, 63, 64–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Rousselière, D. (2017). A flexible approach to age dependence in organizational mortality. Comparing the life duration for cooperative and non-cooperative enterprises using a Bayesian generalized additive discrete time survival model. Unpublished manuscript. Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, France.Google Scholar
  203. Ruef, M. (2000). The emergence of organizational forms: A community ecology approach. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 658–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Ruef, M. (2004). For whom the bell tolls: ecological perspectives on industrial decline and resurgence. Industrial and Corporate Change, 13, 61–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Safford, S. (2008). Why the Garden Club Couldn’t Save Youngstown: The Transformation of the Rust Belt. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  206. Samila, S., and Sorenson, O. (2011a). Venture capital, entrepreneurship, and economic growth. Review of Economics and Statistics, 93, 338–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Samila, S., and Sorenson, O. (2011b). Non-compete covenants: Incentives to innovate or impediments to growth. Management Science, 57, 425–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Samila, S., and Sorenson, O. (2017). Community and capital in entrepreneurship and economic growth. American Sociological Review, 82, 770–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Saxenian, A. 1994. Regional Advantage. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  210. Shaver, J.M., and Flyer, F. (2000). Agglomeration economies, firm heterogeneity, and foreign direct investment in the United States. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 1175–1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Simon, H. (1955). A behavioral model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 69, 99–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Sine, W.D., and Lee, B. (2009). Tilting at windmills? The environmental movement and the emergence of the U.S. wind energy sector. Administrative Science Quarterly, 54, 123–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Singh, J.V., Tucker, D.J., and House, R.J. (1986). Organizational legitimacy and the liability of newness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 171–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Smith, K.G., Smith, K.A., Olian, J.D., Sims, H.P., O’Bannon, D.P., and Scully, J.A. (1994). Top management team demography and process: The role of social integration and communication. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 412–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Sørensen, J.B. (1999a). Executive migration and interorganizational competition. Social Science Research, 28, 289–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Sørensen, J.B. (1999b). The ecology of organizational demography: Managerial tenure distributions and organizational competition. Industrial and Corporate Change, 8, 713–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Sørensen, J.B. (2000). The longitudinal effects of group tenure composition on turnover. American Sociological Review, 65, 298–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Sørensen, J.B. (2002). The use and misuse of the coefficient of variation in organizational demography research. Sociological Methods and Research, 30, 475–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Sørensen, J.B. (2007). Organizational diversity, labor markets and wage inequality. The American Behavioral Scientist, 50, 659–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Sørensen, J.B., and Feng, M. (2017). Analogical learning and categorical identity during market emergence. In M-D.L. Seidel, and H.R. Greve (Eds.) Emergence (Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Volume 50) (283–313). England: Emerald Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  221. Sørensen J.B., and Sorenson, O. (2007). Corporate demography and income inequality. American Sociological Review, 72, 766–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Sørensen, J.B., and Stuart, T.E. (2000). Aging, obsolescence and organizational innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45, 81–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Sorenson, O. (2017). Regional ecologies of entrepreneurship. Journal of Economic Geography, 17, 959–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Sorenson, O., and Audia, P.G. (2000). The social structure of entrepreneurial activity: Geographic concentration of footwear production in the U.S., 1940–1989. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 424–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Sorenson, O., and Stuart, T.E. (2001). Syndication networks and the spatial distribution of venture capital investment. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 1546–1588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Spigel, B. (2017). Bourdieu, culture, and the economic geography of practice: entrepreneurial mentorship in Ottawa and Waterloo, Canada. Journal of Economic Geography, 17, 287–310.Google Scholar
  227. Stavins, J. (1995). Model entry and exit in a differentiated-product industry: The personal computer market. Review of Economics and Statistics, 77, 571–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Stinchcombe, A.L. (1965). Social structure and organizations. In J. March (Ed.) Handbook of Organizations (142–93). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  229. Stuart, T., and Sorenson, O. (2003). The geography of opportunity: Spatial heterogeneity in founding rates and the performance of biotechnology firms. Research Policy, 32, 229–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Swaminathan, A. (1996). Environmental conditions at founding and organizational mortality: A Trial-by-Fire model. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1350–1377.Google Scholar
  231. Swaminathan, A., and Wade, J. (2001). Social movement theory and the evolution of new organizational forms. In C.B. Schoonhoven and E. Romanelli (Eds.) The Entrepreneurship Dynamic: Origins of Entrepreneurship and the Evolution of Industries (286–313). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  232. Tripsas, M. (2009). Technology, identity, and inertia through the lens of “The Digital Photography Company.” Organization Science, 20, 441–460.Google Scholar
  233. Tripsas, M., and Gavetti, G. (2000). Capabilities, cognition, and inertia: Evidence from digital imaging. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 1147–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Tuma, N.B., and Hannan, M.T. (1984). Social Dynamics: Models and Methods. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  235. Verhaal, J.C., Hoskins, J.D., and Lundmark, L.W. (2017). Little fish in a big pond: Legitimacy transfer, authenticity, and factors of peripheral firm entry and growth in the market center. Strategic Management Journal, 38, 2532–2552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Verhaal, J.C., O.M. Khessina, and S. Dobrev. (2015). Oppositional product names, organizational identities, and product appeal. Organization Science, 26, 1466–1484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Wagner, W.G., Pfeffer, J., and O’Reilly, C.A. (1984). Organizational demography and turnover in Top-management groups. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 74–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Waguespack, D.M., and Sorenson, O. (2011). The ratings game: Asymmetry in classification. Organization Science, 22, 541–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Weber, A. (1928). Theory of the Location of Industries, translated by C. J. Friedrich. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  240. Weber, M. (1968). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. New York: Bedmeister. 3 vols. [Originally published in 1924].Google Scholar
  241. Wheaton, D.R., and Carroll, G.R. (2017). Where did “Tex-Mex” come from? The divisive emergence of a social category. Research in Organizational Behavior, 37, 143–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Wiersema, M., and Bird, A. (1993). Organizational demography in Japanese firms: Group heterogeneity, individual dissimilarity and top management turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 996–1025.Google Scholar
  243. Windzio, M. (2003). Organisation, Strukturwandel und Arbeitsmarktmobilität. Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Yu, G.J., and Khessina, O.M. (2012). The role of exploration in firm survival in the worldwide optical library market, 1990–1998. Annual Meetings of the Academy of Management, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  245. Zucker, L.G., Darby M.R., and Brewer, M.B. (1998). Intellectual human capital and the birth of U.S. biotechnology enterprises. American Economic Review, 88, 290–306.Google Scholar
  246. Zuckerman, E. (1999). The Categorical Imperative: Securities analysts and the illegitimacy discount. American Journal of Sociology, 104, 1398–1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of BusinessStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations