19 Population Psychology

  • Toni FalboEmail author
  • Joseph L. Rodgers
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)


Population psychology as a discipline and as an organizational entity originated in the early 1970s, in an effort to address concerns about population problems. The chapter reviews the literature about the effects of family structure on children, emphasizing tests of prominent theoretical models, such as the Confluence Model, Admixture Hypothesis, and Dilution theory. In addition, the chapter contains a literature review about the causes and consequences of childlessness and the one-child family. Psychological theories of fertility and family planning, notably the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Traits-Desires-Intentions-Behavior model, are described and evaluated. The expanding literature about behavioral genetic research on fertility and reproduction is reviewed. Finally, psychological approaches to the study of migration and Global Warming are presented. The chapter aims to demonstrate that psychological thinking can be useful for other disciplines to move population studies forward in the future, as multi-disciplinary scholars “jump together” to address population issues.


Childlessness Only children Confluence model Admixture hypothesis Dilution theory Theory of planned behavior Traits-desires-interactions-behavior model Behavioral genetics Migration Global warming 



The authors wish to thank Warren Miller, Larry Severy, and Vaida Thompson, who reviewed the paper and made cogent and helpful comments that influenced our thinking and our writing. We also thank the editor of the handbook, Dudley Poston, who also read our chapter carefully and made helpful comments.


  1. Adler, N. E., David, H. P., Major, B. N., Roth, S. H., Russo, N. F., & Wyatt, G. E. (1990). Psychological responses after abortion. Science, 248, 41–44.Google Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Ajzen, I., & Klobas, J. (2013). Fertility intentions: An approach based on the theory of planned behavior. Demographic Research, 29 (8), 203–232.Google Scholar
  4. Ashburn-Nardo, L. (2017). Parenthood as a moral imperative? Moral outrage and the stigmatization of voluntary childfree women and men. Sex Roles, 76, 393–401. DOI 10.1007/s11199-016-0606-1Google Scholar
  5. Attané, I. (2002). China’s family planning policy: An overview of its past and future. Studies in Family Planning, 33 (1), 103–113.Google Scholar
  6. Bachrach, C.A. (2014). Culture and demography: From reluctant bedfellows to committed partners. Demography, 51, 3–25. DOI 10.1007/s13524-013-0257-6Google Scholar
  7. Bain, P. G., Milfont, T. L., Kashima, Y., Bilewicz, M., Doron, G., Gardarsdottir, R. B., … Saviolidis, N. M. (2016). Co-benefits of addressing climate change can motivate action around the world. Nature climate change, 6(2), 154–157. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2814Google Scholar
  8. Barber, J. S., Kusunoki, Y. and Gatny, H. H. (2011). Design and implementation of an online weekly journal to study unintended pregnancies. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 9, 327–334.Google Scholar
  9. Behrman, J. R. & Taubman, P. (1986). Birth order, schooling, and earnings. Journal of Labor Economics, Supplement. S121–S145.Google Scholar
  10. Belmont L. & Marolla, F.A. (1973). Birth order, family size, and intelligence. Science, 182, 1096–1101.Google Scholar
  11. Biggs, M.A., Gould, H., & Foster, D.G. (2013). Understanding why women seek abortions in the U.S. BMC Women’s Health, 13 (29).
  12. Black, S.E., Devereux, P.J., & Salvanes, K.G. (2005). The more the merrier? The effect of family composition on children’s education. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 120, 669–700.Google Scholar
  13. Blake, J. (1989). Family size and achievement. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bjerkedal, T., Kristensen, P., Skjeret, G.A. & Brevik, J.I. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. Intelligence, 35, 503–514.Google Scholar
  15. Bretell, C. & Hollifield, J. F. (2008). Migration Theory. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Briley, D. A., Harden, K. P., & Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2015). Genotype X cohort interaction on completed fertility and age atfirst birth. Behavior Genetics, 45, 71–83.Google Scholar
  17. Brill, A.A. (1922). Psychoanalysis—Its theories and practical applications. Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  18. Cai, H., Kwan, V.S.Y., & Sedikides, C. (2012). A sociocultural approach to narcissism: European Journal of Personality, 26, 529–535. doi: 10.1002/per.852Google Scholar
  19. Cohen, J.E. (1995). How many people can the earth support? The New York Academy of Sciences, 35 (6), 18–23.Google Scholar
  20. Conly, S. (2016). One Child: Do We Have the Right to More? New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Darley, J. M., & Pittman, T. S. (2003). The psychology of compensatory and retributive justice. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7, 324–336. doi:10.1207/S15327957PSPR0704_05.Google Scholar
  22. David, H.P. (1988). Overview: a brief history of abortion and studies of denied abortion. In Born unwanted: developmental effects of denied abortion. David, H.P., Dytrych, Z., Matejcek, Z., & Schuller, V. (Eds.). NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  23. Davidson, A.R., & Jaccard, J.J. (1975). Population psychology: A new look at an old problem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 1073–1082.Google Scholar
  24. Davidson, A. R., & Jaccard, J. J. (1979). Variables that moderate the attitude– behavior relation: Results of a longitudinal survey. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1364 –1376. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.37.8.1364Google Scholar
  25. De Jong, G.F., & Gardner, R.W. (Eds.). (1981). Migration decision making: Multidisciplinary approaches to microlevel studies in developed and developing countries. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  26. Downey, D. B. (2001). Number of siblings and intellectual development: The resource dilution explanation. American Psychologist, 56, 497–504.Google Scholar
  27. Dunne, M.P., Martin, N.G., Statham, D.J., Slutske, W.S., Dinwiddie, S.H., Bucholz, K.K., Madden, P.A., Heath, A.C. (1997). Genetic and environmental contributions to variance in age at first sexual intercourse. Psychological Science, 8,1–6.Google Scholar
  28. Ehrlich, P. R. (1968). The population bomb. NY: Ballentine Books.Google Scholar
  29. Falbo, T. (2018). Evaluations of the behavioral attributes of only children in Beijing, China: Moderating effects of gender and the one-child policy. Heliyon, 4, e00607. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.Google Scholar
  30. Falbo, T. (1981). Relationships between birth category, achievement and interpersonal orientations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 121–131.Google Scholar
  31. Falbo, T., & Hooper, S.Y. (2015). China’s only children and psychopathology: A quantitative synthesis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 85 (3), 259–274. Scholar
  32. Falbo, T., & Polit, D. (1986). A quantitative review of the only-child literature: Research evidence and theory development. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 176–189.Google Scholar
  33. Falbo, T., & Poston, D.L., Jr. (1993). The academic, personality, and physical outcomes of only children in China. Child Development, 64 (1), 18–35. doi:10.2307/1131435Google Scholar
  34. Fawcett, J. (Ed.) (1973). Psychological Perspectives on Population. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  35. Fawcett, J. (1985). Migration psychology: New behavior models. Journal of Population and Environment, 8, Issue 1–2, 5–14.Google Scholar
  36. Fenton, N. (1928). The only child. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 35, 546–556.Google Scholar
  37. Fishbein, M. (1967). Attitude and the prediction of behavior. In M. Fishbein (Ed.), Readings in Attitude Theory and Measurement. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Fisher, R.A. (1930). The genetical theory of natural selection. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  39. Galbraith, R.C. (1982). Sibling spacing and intellectual development: A closer look at the confluence models, Developmental Psychology, 18, 151–173.Google Scholar
  40. Gardner, G. T. & Stern, P. C. (2008). The short list: The most effective actions U.S. households can take to curb climate change. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development. Sept/Oct.Google Scholar
  41. Guillebaud, J. (2016). Voluntary family planning to minimize and mitigate climate change. British Medical Journal, 353: 1–4.Google Scholar
  42. Guo, G., & Tong, Y. (2006). Age at first sexual intercourse, genes, and social context: Evidence from twins and the dopamine D4 receptor gene. Demography. 43,747–769.Google Scholar
  43. Guo, G., Tong, Y., Xie, C., &Lange, L.A. (2007). Dopamine transporter, gender, and number of sexual partners among young adults. European Journal of Human Genetics. 15, 279–287.Google Scholar
  44. Harden, K. P. (2014). Genetic influences on adolescent sexual behavior: Why genes matter for environmentally oriented researchers. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 434–465.Google Scholar
  45. Hauser, P. M. & P Duncan, O. D. (Eds.) (1959). The study of population: An inventory and appraisal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. Hawken, P. (Ed.) (2016). Drawdown: The most comprehensive plan ever proposed to reverse Global Warming. New York, Penguin.Google Scholar
  47. Hughes, K.A., & Burleson, M.H. (2000). Evolutionary causes and consequences of variation in fertility and other fitness traits. In J.L. Rodgers, D.C. Rowe, & W.B. Miller (Eds.), Genetic influences on human fertility and sexuality (pp. 7–34). Boston: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  48. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2014). Climate change 2014: Synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Wirting Team, R. K. Pachauri and L. A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp.Google Scholar
  49. Jaccard, J. & Levitz, N. (2013). Counseling adolescents about contraception: towards the development of an evidence-based protocol for contraceptive counselors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52 (4 Suppl), 6–13.Google Scholar
  50. Jiao, S. Ji, G., & Jing, Q. (1996). Cognitive development of Chinese urban only children and children with siblings. Child Development, 67, 387–395.Google Scholar
  51. Johnson, K.A. (2016). China’s hidden children: Abandonment, adoption, and the human costs of the one-child policy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  52. Kley, S. (2017). Facilitators and constraints at each stage of the migration decision process. Population Studies, 71, S1, S35–S49 Scholar
  53. Klobas, J. & Ajzen, I. (2015). Making the decision to have a child. In D. Philipov et al (Eds.) Reproductive Decision-Making in a Macro-Micro Perspective, Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business. 10.1007/978-94-017-9401-5_3Google Scholar
  54. Kohler, H.-P., Rodgers, J.L., & Christensen, K. (1999). Is fertility behavior in our genes? Findings from a Danish twin study. Population and Development Review, 25, 253–288.Google Scholar
  55. Kurekova, L. (2011). Theories of migration: Conceptual review and empirical testing in the context of the EU East West flows. Paper prepared for Interdisciplinary conference on Migration, Economic Change, Social Challenge. April 6–9, 2011, University College, London.Google Scholar
  56. Lee, E. (1966). A theory of migration. Demography, 3, 47–57.Google Scholar
  57. Major, B., Appelbaum, M., Beckman, L. Dutton, M.A., Russo, N.R., & West, C. (2009). Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence. American Psychologist, 64, (9), 863–890. DOI: 10.1037/a0017497Google Scholar
  58. Malthus, T.R. (1798). Essay on the principle of population. St. Paul’s Churchyard. London: J. Johnson.Google Scholar
  59. Massey, D. S. (1999). Why does immigration occur? A theoretical synthesis. In C. Hirschman et al. (Eds.), The Handbook of International Migration. The Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  60. McCright, A. M. & Dunlap, R. E. (2011). The politicization of climate change and polarization in the American public’s views of global warming, 2001–2010. The Sociological Quarterly, 52, 155–194.Google Scholar
  61. McKibben, B. (1998). Maybe one: A personal and environmental argument for single child families. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  62. McMichael, A.J. (1999). From hazard to habitat: Rethinking environment and health, Epidemiology and Society, 10 (4), 460–464.Google Scholar
  63. Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. L., Randers, J. Behrens, W. W. (1972). The limits to growth. New York: Universe Books.Google Scholar
  64. Mealey, L., & Segal, N.L. (1993). Heritable and environmental variables affect reproduction- related behaviors, but not ultimate reproductive success. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 783–794.Google Scholar
  65. Miller, W. B. (2011). Comparing the TPB and the T-D-I-B framework. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, 9, 19–29.Google Scholar
  66. Mills, M. C. & Tropf, F.C. (2015). The biodemography of fertility: A review and future research frontiers. Kolner Z Soz Sozpsychol, 67 (Suppl 1), 397–424.Google Scholar
  67. Miller, W. B. Barber, J.S., & Gatny, H. H. (2017a). Mediation models of pregnancy desires and unplanned pregnancy in young, unmarried women. Journal of Biosocial Science, 1–21. doi:10.1017/S0021932017000165Google Scholar
  68. Miller, W.B., Barber, J.S., & Schulz, P. (2017b). Do perceptions of their partners’ childbearing desires affect young women’s pregnancy risk? Further study of ambivalence. Population Studies, 71, 1, 101–116.Google Scholar
  69. Miller, W. B., Bard, D. E., Pasta, D. J., & Rodgers, J. L. (2010). Biodemographic jmodeling of the links between fertility motivation and fertility outcomes in the NLSY79. Demography, 47, 393–414.Google Scholar
  70. Miller, W.B., & Pasta, D.J. (2002). The motivational substrate of unintended and unwanted pregnancy. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 7, 1, 1–29.Google Scholar
  71. Miller, W.B., Pasta, D.J., MacMurray, J., Chiu, C., Wu, H., Comings, D.E. (1999) Dopamine receptors are associated with ge at first sexual intercourse. Journal of Biosocial Science, 31, 43–54Google Scholar
  72. Miller, W.B., Barber, J.S., & Schulz, P. (2013). Do perceptions of their partners’ childbearing desires affect young women’s pregnancy risk? Further study of ambivalence. Population Studies, 71, 1, 101–116.Google Scholar
  73. Miller, W.B., Trent, M., & Chung, S.E. (2014). Ambivalent childbearing motivations: Predicting condom use by urban, African American, female youth. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 27, 151–160.Google Scholar
  74. Murtaugh, P. A. & Schlax, M. G. (2009). Reproduction and the carbon legacies of individuals. Global Environmental Change, 19, 14–20.Google Scholar
  75. Myrskylä, M., Kohler, H.-P., & Billari, F. C. (2009). Advances in development reverse fertility declines. Nature 460, 741–743.Google Scholar
  76. Page, E. B., & Grandon, G. M. (1979). Family configuration and mental ability: Two theories contrasted with U.S. data. American Educational Research Journal, 16, 257–272.Google Scholar
  77. Pastis, S. (October 1, 2008) Pearls before Swine [Cartoon]. Retrieved from
  78. Rainwater, L. (1965). Family design: Marital sexuality, family size, and contraception, Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  79. Rodgers, J. L. (1984). Confluence effects: Not here, not now! Developmental Psychology, 20, 321–331.Google Scholar
  80. Rodgers, J. L. (2014). Did the Flynn effect cause Belmont and Marolla’s birth order-IQ patterns? A reinterpretation at 40 years. Intelligence, 128–133.Google Scholar
  81. Rodgers, J.L. (2010). The epistemology of mathematical and statistical modeling: A quiet methodological revolution. American Psychologist, 65 (1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  82. Rodgers, J. L. (2001). What causes birth order-intelligence patterns? The Admixture Hypothesis, Revived. American Psychologist, 56 505–510.Google Scholar
  83. Rodgers, J. L., Bard, D. , & Miller, W. B. (2007). Multivariate cholesky models of human female fertility patterns in the NLSY. Behavior Genetics, 37, 345–361.Google Scholar
  84. Rodgers J. L., Cleveland, H. H., van den Oord, E., & Rowe, D. C. (2000). Resolving the debate over birth order, family size, and intelligence. American Psychologist, 55, 599–612.Google Scholar
  85. Rodgers, J.L., Hughes, K., Kohler, H.-P., Christensen, K., Doughty, D., Rowe, D., Miller, W.B. (2001a) Genetic influence helps explain variation in fertility outcomes: A review of the recent behavioral and molecular genetic literature. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10,184–188.Google Scholar
  86. Rodgers, J. L. & Kohler, H-P. (2003). The Biodemography of Human Reproduction and Fertility. Boston: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  87. Rodgers, J.L., Kohler, H.-P., Kyvik, K.O., & Christensen, K. (2001b). Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility: Findings from a contemporary Danish twin study. Demography, 38, 29–42.Google Scholar
  88. Rodgers, J.L., Rowe, D.C., Buster, M. (1999). Nature, nurture, and first sexual intercourse: Fitting behavioural genetic models to NLSY kinship data. Journal of Biosocial Science, 31, 29–41Google Scholar
  89. Rodgers, J.L., Rowe, D.C., & Miller, W.B. (Eds.). (2000b). Genetic influences on human fertility and sexuality. Boston: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  90. Rodgers, J. L. & Thompson, V. D. (1985–1986). Toward a general framework of family configuration: A review of theory-based empirical research. Population and Environment, 8, 143–172.Google Scholar
  91. Rudman, L. A., & Fairchild, K. (2004). Reactions to counter stereotypic behavior: The role of backlash in cultural stereotype maintenance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 157–176. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.87.2.157.Google Scholar
  92. Rue, V.M., & Speckhard, A. (1992). Post-abortion trauma: Incidence and diagnostic considerations. Medicine & Mind, 6, 57–74.Google Scholar
  93. Rutherford, R.D. & Sewell, W.H. (1991). Birth order and intelligence: Further tests of the confluence model. American Sociological Review, 56, 141–158.Google Scholar
  94. Schuldt, J. P., Konrath, S. H. & Schwarz, N. (2011). “Global warming” or “climate change”?: Whether the planet is warming depends on question wording. Public Opinion Quarterly 75, 115–124.Google Scholar
  95. Severy, L.J. (Ed.) (1993). Advances in population: Psychosocial perspectives. Vol. 1, London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  96. Severy, L.J. (Ed.) (1994). Advances in population: Psychosocial perspectives. Vol. 2, London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  97. Severy, L.J. & Miller, W.B. (Eds.) (1999). Advances in population: Psychosocial perspectives. Vol. 3, London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  98. Simon, J. (1981). The ultimate resource. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Simonton, D. K. (2000). Statistical correlations, nomothetic principles, and exceptions to the rule. Politics and the Life Sciences, 19, 173–174.Google Scholar
  100. Singh, S., Darroch, J., Ashford, L. (2014). Adding it up: the costs and benefits of investing in sexual and reproductive health 2014.Guttmacher Institute and UNFPA.Google Scholar
  101. Steelman, L. C. & Mercy, J. A. (1980). Unconfounding the confluence model: A tests of sibship size and birth-order effects on intelligence. American Sociological Review, 45, 571–582.Google Scholar
  102. Stern, P.C. (2011). Contributions of psychology to limiting climate change. American Psychologist, 66 (4), 303–314.Google Scholar
  103. Sulloway, F. J. (1996). Born to rebel: Birth order, family dynamics, and creative lives. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  104. Thompson, V.D. (1974). Family size: Implicit policies and assumed psychological outcomes. Journal of Social Issues, 30 (4), 93–124.Google Scholar
  105. Thompson, V. D. & David, H.P. (1977). Population psychology in perspective. International Journal of Psychology, 12 (2), 135–146.Google Scholar
  106. Thompson, V. D., Tashakkori, A. (1993). Another look at heredity and environment as shapers of the person: A proximal-distal framework for consideration. In L. Severy (Ed.), Advances in Population, 1, 57–84. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. PMID: 12159230Google Scholar
  107. Todaro, M. P. & Smith, S. (2006). Economic development. Boston: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  108. Townsend, F. (2000). Birth order and rebelliousness: Reconstructing the research in Born to Rebel. Politics and the Life Sciences, 19, 135–156.Google Scholar
  109. Tropf, F. C., et al. (2017). Hidden heritability due to heterogeneity across seven populations. Nature Human Behavior, 1, 757–765.Google Scholar
  110. Tropf, F. C., Barban, N., Mills, M. C., Snieder, H., & Mandemakers, J. J. (2015a). Genetic influence on age at first birth of female twins born in the UK, 1919-68. Population Studies, 69, 129–145.Google Scholar
  111. Tropf, F. C., Stulp, G., Barban, N., Visscher, P. M., Yang, J., Snieder, H., et al. (2015b). Human Fertility, Molecular Genetics, and Natural Selection in Modern Societies. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0126821. Scholar
  112. Udry, J. R. (1995). Sociology and biology: What biology do sociologists need to know? Social Forces, 73, 1267–1278.Google Scholar
  113. Udry J.R. (1996). Biosocial models of low-fertility societies. In: Casterline J.B., Lee, R.D., Foote, K.A. (Eds.) Fertility in the United States: New patterns, new theories. The Population Council, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  114. Urban, M. C. (2015). Accelerating extinction risk from climate change. Science, 348, 571–573.Google Scholar
  115. Valendia, W., Grandon, G. M., & Page, E. B. (1978). Family size, birth order, and intelligence in a large South American sample. American Educational Research Journal, 15, 399–416.Google Scholar
  116. VanderDrift, L. E., Agnew, C. R., Harvey, S. M., & Warren, J. (2013). Whose intentions predict? Power over condom use within heterosexual dyads. Health Psychology, 32, 1038–1046. doi: 10.1037/a0030021.Google Scholar
  117. Vikat, A., Spéder, Z., Beets, G., Billari, F. C., Bühler, C., Desesquelles, A., et al. (2007). Generations and Gender Survey (GGS): Towards a better understanding of relationships and processes in the life course. Demographic Research, 17 (14), 389–440. doi:10.4054/DemRes.2007.17.14.Google Scholar
  118. Wachter, K.W. & Bulatao, R.A. (Eds.) (2003). Offspring: Human fertility behavior in biodemographic perspective. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  119. Weller, R.H. & Bouvier, L. F. (1981). Population- demography and policy. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  120. Wichman, A. L., Rodgers, J. L., & MacCallum, R. C. (2006). A multilevel approach to the relationship between birth order and intelligence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 117–137.Google Scholar
  121. Wilbur, G. (1963). Migration expectancy in the United States. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 444–453.Google Scholar
  122. Wilson, E. O. (1985). The biological diversity crisis. BioScience, 35, 700–706.Google Scholar
  123. Wilson, E. O (1998). Consilience: the unity of knowledge. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  124. Wire, T. (2009). Fewer emitters, lower emission, less cost: Reducing future carbon emissions by investing in family planning. London: London School of Economics, for the Optimum Population Trust.Google Scholar
  125. Wolpert, J. (1965). Behavioral aspects of the decision to migrate. Papers of the Regional Science Association, 15, 19–169.Google Scholar
  126. Zajonc R. B. (1976). Family configuration and intelligence. Science, 192, 227–236.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Population Research CenterUniversity of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  2. 2.Vanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations