Advertisement

14 Adult Mortality

  • Richard G. RogersEmail author
  • Robert A. Hummer
  • Patrick M. Krueger
  • Justin M. Vinneau
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

Demographers play a vital role in documenting and explaining adult mortality patterns and trends so that policymakers have a credible scientific base from which to improve health and increase life expectancy. Consistent with that role, this chapter reviews the complex set of demographic, socioeconomic, social, behavioral, geographic, environmental, and biological factors that shape adult mortality patterns, risks, and causes, with a geographic focus on the United States. While the United States has witnessed remarkable declines in adult mortality over the past century, it has experienced increases in middle-aged mortality over the past several years and ranks poorly relative to other high-income countries. Given the key points made in this chapter, we conclude that future reductions in U.S. adult mortality rates will depend upon reductions in obesity, tobacco consumption, drug and alcohol abuse, violence, physical inactivity, and racial and socioeconomic inequality.

Keywords

Adult mortality Tobacco consumption Alcohol consumption Drug abuse Obesity Socioeconomic status Race/ethnicity Geographic variations International comparisons 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD grant 1R01HD082106) for research support; the NICHD-funded University of Colorado Population Center (Award Number P2CHD066613) and the NICHD-funded Carolina Population Center (Award Number P2CHD050924) for administrative and computing support. The content of this manuscript is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of NIH or NICHD.

References

  1. Acciai, F., Noah, A. J., & Firebaugh, G. (2015). Pinpointing the sources of the Asian mortality advantage in the USA. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 69, 1006–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad, F.B., and Bastian, B. (2018). Quarterly provisional estimates for selected indicators of mortality, 2016-Quarter 4, 2017. National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics System, Vital Statistics Rapid Release Program (https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/mortality.htm).
  3. Arias, E., Anderson, R. N., Kung, H-C., Murphy, S. L., & Kochanek, K. D. (2013). Deaths: Final data for 2011. National Vital Statistics Reports, 52(3), 1–116.Google Scholar
  4. Arias, E., Eschbach, K., Schauman, W. S., Backlund, E. L., & Sorlie, P. D. (2010). The Hispanic mortality advantage and ethnic misclassification on US death certificates. American Journal of Public Health, 100(S1), S171–S177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arias, E., Heron, M., & Tejada-Vera, B. (2013). United States life tables eliminating certain causes of death, 1999–2001. National Vital Statistics Reports 61(9), 1–129.Google Scholar
  6. Arias, E., Heron, M., & Xu, J. (2017). United States life tables, 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports, 66(4), 1–64.Google Scholar
  7. Arias, E., Schauman, W. S., Eschbach, K., Sorlie, P. D., & Backlund, E. (2008). The validity of race and Hispanic origin reporting on death certificates in the United States. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 2, Data evaluation and methods research, (148), 1–24.Google Scholar
  8. Berkman, L. F., & Breslow, L. (1983). Health and ways of living. NY: Oxford.Google Scholar
  9. Berko, J., Ingram, D.D., Saha, S., & Parker, J.D. (2014). Deaths attributed to heat, cold, and other weather events in the United States, 2006–2010. National Health Statistics Reports 76: 1–15 (www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr076.pdf).Google Scholar
  10. Canudas-Romo, V. (2010). Three measures of longevity: Time trends and record values. Demography, 47(2), 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Case, A., & Deaton, A. (2015). Rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(49), 15078–15083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Case, A., & Deaton, A. (2017). Mortality and morbidity in the 21st century. Brookings papers on economic activity, 397–476.Google Scholar
  13. Chetty, R., Stepner, M., Abraham, S., Lin, S., Scuderi, B., Turner, N., Bergeron, A., & Cutler, D. (2016). The association between income and life expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014. Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(16), 1750–1766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2015). Mortality risks among persons reporting same-sex sexual partners: evidence from the 2008 General Social Survey – National Death Index Data Set. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 358–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cossman, J. S., James, W. L., Cosby, A. G., & Cossman, R. E. (2010). Underlying causes of the emerging nonmetropolitan mortality penalty. American Journal of Public Health, 100(8), 1417–1419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cox, D. R. (1972). Regression models and life tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 34, 187–220.Google Scholar
  17. Cutler, D. M., & Lleras-Muney, A. (2008). Education and health: Evaluating theories and evidence. In Schoeni, RF, editor. Making Americans Healthier: Social and Economic Policy as Health Policy. NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  18. Cutler, D., & Miller, G. (2005). The role of public health improvements in health advances: The 20th century United States. Demography, 42(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daw, J. (2015). Explaining the persistence of health disparities: Social stratification and the efficiency-equity trade-off in the kidney transplantation system. American Journal of Sociology, 120(6), 1595–1640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Durkheim, E. (1897) [1951]. Suicide. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dwyer-Lindgren, L., Bertozzi-Villa, A., Stubbs, R. W., Morozoff, C., Mackenbach, J. P., van Lenthe, F. J., Mokdad, A. H., Murray, C. J. L. (2017). Inequalities in life expectancy among US counties, 1980 to 2014. JAMA Internal Medicine, 318(12), 1136–1149.Google Scholar
  22. Ellison, C. G., Hummer, R.A., Cormier, S., & Rogers, R. G. (2000). Religious involvement and mortality risk among African American adults. Research on Aging, 22(6), 630–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Etherington, N. (2003). War, demographic consequences of. Encyclopedia of Population, edited by P. Demeny and G. McNicoll, Vol. 2, pp. 963–966. New York, NY: Macmillan Reference. Gale Virtual Reference Library (http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX3403900330/GVRL?u=coloboulder&sid=GVRL&xid=cdef1a5a). Accessed May 11, 2018.
  24. Fogel, R. W., & Costa, D.L. (1997). A theory of technophysio evolution, with some implications for forecasting population, health care costs, and pension costs. Demography, 34(1), 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fries, J. F. (1980). Aging, natural death, and the compression of morbidity. New England Journal of Medicine, 303, 130–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gillum, R. F., King, D. E., Obisesan, T. O., & Koenig, H. G. (2009). Frequency of attendance at religious services and mortality in a U.S. national cohort. Annals of Epidemiology, 18, 124–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gun Violence Archive. (2018). Mass Shootings – All Years http://www.gunviolencearchive.org/. Washington, DC 20036. Accessed June 12, 2018.
  28. Hales, C. M., Carroll, M. D., Fryar, C. D., & Ogden, C. L. (2017). Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2015–2016. National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief, 288, 1–8. Google Scholar
  29. Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Bellatorre, A., Lee, Y., Finch, B. K., Muenning, P., & Fiscella, K. (2014). Structural stigma and all-cause mortality in sexual minority populations. Social Science & Medicine, 103, 33–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hedegaard, H., Warner, M., & Miniño, A. M. (2017). Drug overdose deaths in the United States, 1999–2016. NCHS Data Brief, 294, 1–7.Google Scholar
  31. Heron, M. (2017). Deaths: Leading causes for 2015. National Vital Statistics Reports 66(5), 1–76.Google Scholar
  32. Hill, M. E., Preston, S. H., & Rosenwaike, I. (2000). Age reporting among white Americans aged 85+: Results of a record linkage study. Demography, 37(2), 175–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hirschman, C., Preston, S. H., & Loi, V. M. (1995). Vietnamese casualties during the American War: A new estimate. Population and Development Review, 21(4), 783–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ho, J. Y., & Preston, S. H. (2010). US mortality in an international context: age variations. Population and Development Review, 36(4), 749–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hummer, R. A., Benjamins, M. R., & Rogers, R. G. (2004). Racial and ethnic disparities in health and mortality among the US elderly population. Pages 53–94 in Critical perspectives on racial and ethnic differences in health in late life. edited by Anderson, N. B., Bulatao, R. A., and Cohen, B. National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hummer, R. A., & Chinn, J. J. (2011). Race/ethnicity and U.S. adult mortality: Progress, prospects, and new analysis. Du Bois Review, 8(1), 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hummer, R. A., and Gutin, I. (2018). Racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in the health of older U.S. men and women. Pp. 31–66 in M. D. Hayward and M. K. Majmundar, eds, Future directions for the demography of aging: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  38. Hummer, R. A., & Lariscy, J. T. (2011). Educational attainment and adult mortality. Pp 241–261 in R. G. Rogers and E. M. Crimmins, eds, International Handbook of Mortality. Springer.Google Scholar
  39. Hummer, R. A., Melvin, J. E., and He, M. (2015). Immigration, health, and mortality. Pp. 654–661 in James D. Wright (editor-in-chief), International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2nd Edition, Volume 11. Oxford: Elsevier Press.Google Scholar
  40. Hummer, R. A., Rogers, R. G., Nam, C. B., & Ellison, C. G. (1999). Religious participation and U.S. adult mortality. Demography, 36(2), 273–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Idler, E. L. (2011) Religion and Adult Mortality: Group- and Individual-Level Perspectives. Pp 343–375 in R. G. Rogers and E. M. Crimmins, eds, International Handbook of Mortality. Springer.Google Scholar
  42. Jaffe, D. H., Eisenbach, Z., Neumark, Y. D., & Manor, O. (2006). Effects of husbands’ and wives’ education on each other’s mortality. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 2014–2023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Juster, T. F., & Suzman, R. (1995). An overview of the Health and Retirement Survey. Journal of Human Resources, 30(5), S7–S56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Keyfitz, N. (1977). What difference would it make if cancer were eradicated? An examination of the Taeuber paradox. Demography, 14, 411–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kindig, D. A., & Cheng, E. R. (2013). Even as mortality fell in most US counties, female mortality nonetheless rose in 42.8 percent of counties from 1992 to 2006. Health Affairs, 32(3), 451–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kington, R. S., & Nickens, H. W. (2001). Racial and ethnic differences in health: Recent trends, current patterns, future directions. Pp. 253–310 in America becoming: Racial trends and their consequences, Volume II, edited by N.J. Smelser, W.J. Wilson, and F. Mitchell. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  47. Kochanek, K. D., Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Curtin, S. C., & Arias, E. (2017). Mortality in the United States, 2016. NCHS Data Brief, 293, 1–8.Google Scholar
  48. Koenig, H. G., McCollough, M. E., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Handbook of religion and health. NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Krueger, P. M., & Burgard, S. A. (2011). Work, occupation, income, and mortality. Pp 263–288 in R. G. Rogers and E. M. Crimmins, eds, International Handbook of Mortality. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  50. Krueger, P. M., Tran, M. K., Hummer, R. A., & Chang, V. W. (2015). Mortality attributable to low levels of education in the United States. PLoS ONE, 10(7), e0131809.Google Scholar
  51. Lariscy, J. T. (2017). Black–white disparities in adult mortality: Implications of differential record linkage for understanding the mortality crossover. Population Research and Policy Review, 36(1), 137–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lariscy, J. T., Hummer, R. A., & Hayward, M. D. (2015). Hispanic older adult mortality in the United States: New estimates and an assessment of factors shaping the Hispanic paradox. Demography, 52(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lariscy, J. T., Hummer, R. A., & Rogers, R. G. (2018). Cigarette smoking and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the United States. Demography. 55(5), 1855–1885.Google Scholar
  54. Lawrence, E. M., Rogers, R. G., & Wadsworth T. (2015). Happiness and longevity in the United States. Social Science & Medicine, 145, 115–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. (1995). Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Extra Issue, 80–94.Google Scholar
  56. Markides, K. S., & Coreil, J. (1986). The health of Hispanics in the Southwestern United States: An epidemiological paradox. Public Health Reports, 101, 253–265.Google Scholar
  57. Markides, K. S., and Eschbach, K. (2011). Hispanic paradox in adult mortality in the United States. In International handbook of adult mortality (pp. 227–240), edited by R.G. Rogers and E. M. Crimmins. Springer Publishers.Google Scholar
  58. Martikainen, P., & Valkonen, T. (1998). Do education and income buffer the effects of death of spouse on mortality? American Journal of Epidemiology, 9(5), 530–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Masters, R. K. (2012). Uncrossing the U.S. black-white mortality crossover: The role of cohort forces in life course mortality risk. Demography, 49(3), 773–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Masters, R. K., Hummer, R. A., Powers, D. A. (2012). Educational differences in U.S. adult mortality: A cohort perspective. American Sociological Review, 77(4), 548–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Masters, R. K., Hummer, R. A., Powers, D. A., Beck, A., Lin, S., & Finch, B. K. (2014). Long-term trends in adult mortality for U.S. blacks and whites: An examination of period- and cohort-based changes. Demography, 51(6), 2047–2073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Masters, R. K., Reither, E. N., Powers, D. A., Yang, Y. C., Burger, A. E., & Link, B. G. (2013). The impact of obesity on US mortality levels: The importance of age and cohort factors in population estimates. American Journal of Public Health, 103(10), 1895–1901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Masters, R. K., Tilstra, A. M., & Simon, D. H. (2017). Explaining recent mortality trends among younger and middle-aged white Americans. International Journal of Epidemiology, 47(1), 81–88.Google Scholar
  64. Miech, R., Pampel, F., Kim, J., & Rogers, R. G. (2011). The enduring association between education and mortality: The role of widening and narrowing disparities. American Sociological Review, 76(6), 913–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Montez, J. K., Zajacova, A., & Hayward, M. D. (2016). Explaining inequalities in women’s mortality between US states. SSM-Population Health, 2, 561–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Muenning, P., Johnson, G., Kim, J., Smith, T., & Rosen, Z. (2011). The General Social Survey-National Death Index: An innovative new dataset for the social science. BMC Research Notes, 4(385), 1–6Google Scholar
  67. Muenning, P., Rosen, Z., Johnson, G., Smith, T. W., & Son, J. (2016). “Codebook for the 1978–2010 General Social Survey linked to mortality data through 12/31/2014 via the National Death Index.” New York, NY: Columbia University. Available at: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/57455384555986dec9a779bc/t/58e7b096db29d6655bea0268/1491579035628/2016+GSS-NDI+Codebook+FINAL+3+20+17.pdf. Retrieved on 2/15/18.
  68. Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., & Kochanek, K. D. (2013). Deaths: Final data for 2019. National Vital Statistics Reports, 61(4), 1–118.Google Scholar
  69. Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., Curtin, S. C., & Arias, E. (2017). Deaths: Final data for 2015. National Vital Statistics Reports, 66(6), 1–75.Google Scholar
  70. Musick, M. A., House, J. S., & Williams, D. R. (2004). Attendance at religious services and mortality in a national sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45(2), 198–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nam, C. B., Rogers, R. G., & Hummer, R. A. (1996). Impact of future cigarette smoking scenarios on mortality of the adult population in the U.S., 2000–2050. Social Biology, 43, 155–168.Google Scholar
  72. National Center for Health Statistics. (2016). Healthy people 2020 midcourse review. Hyattsville, MD. (Available online at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/healthy_people/hp2020/hp2020_midcourse_review.htm).
  73. National Center for Health Statistics. (2017). Health, United States, 2016: With chartbook on long-term trends in heath. Hyattsville, MD.Google Scholar
  74. National Center for Health Statistics. (2018a). Data linkage resources by NCHS health surveys. Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/datalinkage/LinkageTable.pdf. Retrieved on 6/11/18.
  75. National Center for Health Statistics. (2018b). Early release of selected estimates based on data from the 2017 National Health Interview Survey. Available at: https://public.tableau.com/profile/tina.norris#!/vizhome/FIGURE8_1/Dashboard8_1. Retrieved on 6/28/18.
  76. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (1995). National longitudinal mortality study, 1979–89: Public use file documentation, release 2. Bethesda, MD: Public Health Service.Google Scholar
  77. National Opinion Research Center. (2018). About the GSS: An introduction to the General Social Survey. Chicago, IL. Available at: http://gss.norc.org/About-The-GSS. Retrieved on 6/19/18.
  78. National Research Council. (1997). Between Zeus and the salmon: The biodemography of longevity, edited by K. Wachter and C. Finch. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  79. National Research Council. (2011). Explaining divergent trends of longevity in high-income countries. E. M. Crimmins, S. H. Preston, and B. Cohen, editors. Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries. Committee on Population, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  80. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2013). U.S. health in international perspective: Shorter lives, poorer health. Panel on understanding cross-national health differences among high-income countries, edited by S.H. Woolf and L. Aron. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  81. Noymer, A., & Garenne, M. (2000). The 1918 influenza epidemic’s effects on sex differentials in mortality in the United States. Population and Development Review, 26(3), 565–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Olshansky, S. J., & Ault, A. B. (1986). The fourth stage of the epidemiologic transition: the age of delayed degenerative diseases. The Milbank Quarterly, 355–391.Google Scholar
  83. Olshansky, S. J., & Carnes, B. A. (2001). The quest for immortality: Science at the frontiers of aging. NY: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  84. Olshansky, S. J., Carnes, B. A., & Cassel, C. (1990). In search of Methuselah: Estimating the upper limits to human longevity. Science, 250, 634–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Olshansky, S. J., Carnes, B. A., Rogers, R. G., & Smith, L. (1997). New and ancient threats to world health. Population Bulletin, 52(2), 1–52.Google Scholar
  86. Olshansky, S. J., Passaro, D. J., Hershow, R. C., Layden, J., Carnes, B. A., Brody, J., … & Ludwig, D. S. (2005). A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(11), 1138–1145.Google Scholar
  87. Omran, A. R. (1971). The Epidemiologic transition: A theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 49, 509–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. O’Neil, A., Scovelle, A. J., Milner, A. J., & Kavanagh, A. (2018). Gender/sex as a social determinant of cardiovascular risk. Circulation, 137(8), 854–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Palloni, A., & Morenoff, J. D. (2001). Interpreting the paradoxical in the Hispanic paradox. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 954(1), 140–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pampel, F. C. (1998). National context, social change, and sex differences in suicide rates. American Sociological Review, 63(5), 744–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pampel, F. C. (2001). Gender equality and the sex differential in mortality from accidents in high income nations. Population Research and Policy Review, 20(5), 397–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pampel, F. C. (2002). Cigarette use and the narrowing sex differential in mortality. Population and Development Review, 28(1), 77–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pampel, F. C., Krueger, P. M., & Denney, J. T. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in health behaviors. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 349–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Piketty, T., and Saez, E. (2014). Inequality in the long run. Science 344(6186): 838–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Population Reference Bureau. (2017). 2017 World population data sheet. Washington, DC: PRB. Available at http://www.prb.org/Publications/Datasheets/2017/2017-world-population-data-sheet.aspx. Retrieved on 1/13/18.
  96. Preston, S. H., Elo, I. T., Rosenwaike, I., & Hill, M. (1996). African-American mortality at older ages: Results of a matching study. Demography, 33(2), 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Preston, S. H., Heuveline, P., & Guillot, M. (2001). Demography: Measuring and modeling population processes. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  98. Preston, S. H., Stokes, A., Mehta, N., & Cao, B. (2014). Projecting the effect of changes in smoking and obesity on future life expectancy in the United States. Demography, 51, 27–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rendall, M. S., Weden, M. M., Favreault, M. M., & Waldron, H. (2011). The protective effect of marriage for survival: a review and update. Demography, 48, 481–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Robert, S. A. (1999). Socioeconomic position and health: The independent contributions of community socioeconomic context. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 489–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rogers, R. G., Boardman, J. D., Pendergast, P. M., & Lawrence, E. M. (2015). Drinking problems and mortality risk in the United States. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 151, 38–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rogers, R. G., Carrigan, J. A., & Kovar, M. G. (1997). Comparing mortality estimates based on different administrative records. Population Research and Policy Review, 16(3), 213–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rogers, R. G., Everett, B. G., Saint Onge, J. M., & Krueger, P. M. (2010). Social, behavioral, and biological factors, and sex differences in mortality. Demography, 47(3), 555–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rogers, R. G., & Hackenberg, R. (1987). Extending epidemiologic transition theory: A new stage. Social Biology, 34(3–4), 234–243.Google Scholar
  105. Rogers, R. G., Hummer, R. A., & Krueger, P. M. (2003). Life expectancy. Volume 3, Pp. 789–790 in Encyclopedia of aging. D.J. Ekerdt, R.A. Applebaum, K.C. Holden, S.G. Post, K. Rockwood, R. Schulz, R.L. Sprott, and P. Uhlenberg, (Eds.). NY: Macmillan Reference.Google Scholar
  106. Rogers, R. G., Hummer, R. A., Krueger, P. M., & Pampel, F. C. (2005). Mortality attributable to cigarette smoking in the United States. Population and Development Review, 31(2), 259–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rogers, R. G., Hummer, R. A., & Nam, C. B. (2000). Living and dying in the USA: Social, behavioral, and health differentials in adult mortality. NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  108. Rogers, R. G., Krueger, P. M., Miech, R., & Lawrence, E. M. (2013). Lifetime abstainers and mortality risk in the United States.” Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, 11, 165–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rogers, R. G., Lawrence, E. M., Montez, J. K. (2016). Alcohol’s collateral damage: Childhood exposure to problem drinking and subsequent adult mortality risk. Social Forces, 95(2), 809–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sasson, I. (2016). Trends in life expectancy and lifespan variation in educational attainment: United States, 1990–2010. Demography, 53(2), 269–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Shor, E., Roelfs, D. J., Curreli, M., Clemow, L., Burg, M. M., & Schwartz, J. E. (2012). Widowhood and mortality: A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Demography, 49(2), 575–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sickles, R. C., & Taubman, P. (1997). Mortality and morbidity among adults and the elderly. Pp. 559–643 in M. R. Rosenzweig and O. Stark, eds., Handbook of population and family economics: Volume 1A. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  113. Singh, G. K., & Siahpush, M. (2002). Ethnic-immigrant differentials in health behaviors, morbidity, and cause-specific mortality in the United States: An analysis of two national data bases. Human Biology, 74(1), 83–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Smith, K. R., & Zick, C. D. (1994). Linked lives, dependent demise? Survival analysis of husbands and wives. Demography, 31, 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Smith, S. K, & McCarty, C. (1996). Demographic effects of natural disasters: A case study of Hurricane Andrew. Demography, 33(2), 265–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. U.S. Burden of Disease Collaborators. (2018). The State of US Health, 1990–2016: Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Among US States. JAMA, 319(14), 1–33.Google Scholar
  117. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1964). Smoking and health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. Public Health Service Publication Number 1103. Washington, DC: USGPO.Google Scholar
  118. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). The health consequences of smoking – 50 years of progress: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.Google Scholar
  119. Vaupel, J. W. (2010). Biodemography of Human Ageing. Nature, 464, 536–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vaupel, J. W., Manton, K. G., & Stallard, E. (1979). The impact of heterogeneity in individual frailty on the dynamics of mortality. Demography, 16(3), 439–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wilmoth, J. R., Andreev, K., Jdanov, D., & Glei, D.A. (2007). Methods protocol for the Human Mortality Database, Version 5. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael_Bubenheim/publication/241173442_Methods_Protocol_for_the_Human_Mortality_Database/links/02e7e52879cc1b65c2000000/Methods-Protocol-for-the-Human-Mortality-Database.pdf. Retrieved on 2/21/18.
  122. Wilmoth, J. R., & Lundstrom, H. (1996). Extreme longevity in five countries: Presentation of trends with special attention to issues of data quality. European Journal of Population, 12, 63–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard G. Rogers
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert A. Hummer
    • 2
  • Patrick M. Krueger
    • 3
  • Justin M. Vinneau
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Colorado BoulderBoulderUSA
  2. 2.University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.University of Colorado DenverDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations