Advertisement

13 Infant Mortality

  • Maria Perez-PatronEmail author
  • Bethany DeSalvo
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

Infant mortality is the death of an infant in the first year of life. The infant mortality rate (IMR) is the estimated number of infant deaths per 1000 live births. The IMR is not only a key indicator of maternal and child health, it is also considered an important indicator of population health and development. Child mortality has been declining worldwide as result of socioeconomic development and implementation of child survival interventions and yet, four million children die worldwide every year before their first birthday. Mostly in less developed countries and due to preventable causes. This chapter describes trends in infant mortality between 1990 and 2015 as well as differences across world regions.

Keywords

Infant mortality Child mortality Neonatal mortality Vital registration data Disparities 

References

  1. Abdullah, S., Adazu, K., Masanja, H., Diallo, D., Hodgson, A., Ilboudo-Sanogo, E. et al. (2007). Patterns of age-specific mortality in children in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 77(6 Supp), 99–105.Google Scholar
  2. Abraido-Lanza, A. F., Dohrenwend, B. P., Ng-Mak, D. S., & Turner, J. B. (1999). The Latino mortality paradox: a test of the “salmon bias” and healthy migrant hypotheses. American journal of public health, 89(10), 1543–1548.Google Scholar
  3. Black, R. E., Cousens, S., Johnson, H. L., Lawn, J. E., Rudan, I., Bassani, D. G., et al. (2010). Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. The lancet, 375(9730), 1969–1987.Google Scholar
  4. Bhutta, Z. A., & Black, R. E. (2013). Global maternal, newborn, and child health—so near and yet so far. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(23), 2226–2235.Google Scholar
  5. Boutayeb, A. (2006). The double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Transactions of the Royal society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 100(3), 191–199.Google Scholar
  6. Bygbjerg, I. C. (2012). Double burden of noncommunicable and infectious diseases in developing countries. Science, 337(6101), 1499–1501.Google Scholar
  7. Caldwell, J. C. (1986). Routes to low mortality in poor countries. Population and development review, 171–220.Google Scholar
  8. Cho, Y. and Hummer, R.A. (2001). Disability Status Differentials Across Fifteen Asian and Pacific Islander Groups and the Effect of Nativity and Duration of Residence in the U.S. Social Biology, 48(3–4): 171–195.Google Scholar
  9. Ely, D. M., Driscoll, A. K., & Matthews, T. J. (2017). Infant mortality rates in rural and urban areas in the United States, 2014. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief. No. 285.Google Scholar
  10. Eyler, J.M. (1979). Victorian Social Medicine: The Ideas and Methods of William Farr. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Frisbie, W. P. (2005). Infant mortality. In Poston, D. L., & Micklin, M. (Eds.), Handbook of Population (pp. 251–282). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. Gates, S., Hegre, H., Nygård, H. M., & Strand, H. (2012). Development consequences of armed conflict. World Development, 40(9), 1713–1722.Google Scholar
  13. Graunt J. (1662 [1939]). Natural and Political Observations Mentioned in a Following Index and Made on the Bills of Mortality. London, UK: Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  14. Guillot, M., Gerland, P., Pelletier, F., & Saabneh, A. (2012). Child mortality estimation: a global overview of infant and child mortality age patterns in light of new empirical data. PLoS medicine, 9(8), e1001299.Google Scholar
  15. Haub, C., and Yanagishita, M. (1991). Infant Mortality: Who’s Number One? Population Today, 19: 6–8.Google Scholar
  16. Hill K. (2013). Indirect estimation of child mortality. In Moultrie T.A., Dorrington, R.E., Hill, A.G., Hill, K. Timæus, I.M. and Zaba, B. (eds). Tools for Demographic Estimation. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. http://demographicestimation.iussp.org/content/indirect-estimation-child-mortality . Accessed September 22 2018.
  17. Hummer, R. A., Rogers, R. G., Nam, C. B., & LeClere, F. B. (1999). Race/ethnicity, nativity, and US adult mortality. Social Science Quarterly, 136–153.Google Scholar
  18. Hummer, R. A., Powers, D. A., Pullum, S. G., Gossman, G. L., & Frisbie, W. P. (2007). Paradox found (again): infant mortality among the Mexican-origin population in the United States. Demography, 44(3), 441–457.Google Scholar
  19. Kochanek, K.D., Murphy, S.L., Xu, J.Q., Arias E. (2017). Mortality in the United States, 2016. NCHS Data Brief, no 293. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  20. Landale, N. S., Oropesa, R. S., Llanes, D., & Gorman, B. K. (1999). Does Americanization have adverse effects on health?: stress, health habits, and infant health outcomes among Puerto Ricans. Social Forces, 78(2), 613–641.Google Scholar
  21. Landale, N. S., Oropesa, R. S., & Gorman, B. K. (2000). Migration and infant death: Assimilation or selective migration among Puerto Ricans?. American Sociological Review, 888–909.Google Scholar
  22. Lawn, J. E., Blencowe, H., Oza, S., You, D., Lee, A. C., Waiswa, P. et al. (2014). Every Newborn: progress, priorities, and potential beyond survival. The Lancet, 384(9938), 189–205.Google Scholar
  23. Leslie, J. C., Galvin, S. L., Diehl, S. J., Bennett, T. A., & Buescher, P. A. (2003). Infant mortality, low birth weight, and prematurity among Hispanic, white, and African American women in North Carolina. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 188(5), 1238–1240.Google Scholar
  24. Liu, L., Johnson, H. L., Cousens, S., Perin, J., Scott, S., Lawn, J. E., et al. (2012). Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000. The Lancet, 379(9832), 2151–2161.Google Scholar
  25. MacDorman, M. F., & Mathews, T. J. (2009). Behind international rankings of infant mortality: how the United States compares with Europe. NCHS Data Brief No. 23. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  26. MacDorman, M. F., Mathews, T. J., Mohangoo, A. D., & Zeitlin, J. (2014). International comparisons of infant mortality and related factors: United States and Europe, 2010. National vital statistics reports; vol 63 no 5. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  27. Markides, K. S., & Coreil, J. (1986). The health of Hispanics in the southwestern United States: an epidemiologic paradox. Public health reports, 101(3), 253.Google Scholar
  28. Martin, J. A., Hamilton, B. E., Osterman, M. J., Curtin, S. C., & Mathews, T. J. (2015). Births: final data for 2013. National Vital Statistics Reports; vol 64 no 1. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  29. Mathews, T. J., MacDorman, M. F., & Thoma, M. E. (2015). Infant mortality statistics from the 2013 period linked birth/infant death data set. National vital statistics reports; vol 64 no 9. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  30. McKeown, T. (1976). The Modern Rise of Population. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  31. Murray, C. J., Rajaratnam, J. K., Marcus, J., Laakso, T., & Lopez, A. D. (2010). What can we conclude from death registration? Improved methods for evaluating completeness. PLoS medicine, 7(4), e1000262.Google Scholar
  32. Morales, L. S., Lara, M., Kington, R. S., Valdez, R. O., & Escarce, J. J. (2002). Socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors affecting Hispanic health outcomes. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, 13(4), 477.Google Scholar
  33. Nakiyingi, J. S., Bracher, M., Whitworth, J. A., Ruberantwari, A., Busingye, J., Mbulaiteye, S. M., & Zaba, B. (2003). Child survival in relation to mother’s HIV infection and survival: evidence from a Ugandan cohort study. Aids, 17(12), 1827–1834.Google Scholar
  34. Newsholme, A. (1889). The Elements of Vital Statistics. 2nd ed. London, UK: Swan Sonnenshein.Google Scholar
  35. Newsholme, A. (1910). Thirty-ninth Annual Report of the Local Government Board, 1909-10, Supplement to the report of the Board’s medical officer, containing a report on Infant and Child mortality, Cd.5263, London.Google Scholar
  36. Oestergaard, M. Z., Inoue, M., Yoshida, S., Mahanani, W. R., Gore, F. M., Cousens, S. et al. (2011). Neonatal mortality levels for 193 countries in 2009 with trends since 1990: a systematic analysis of progress, projections, and priorities. PLoS medicine, 8(8), e1001080.Google Scholar
  37. Palloni, A., & Morenoff, J. D. (2001). Interpreting the paradoxical in the Hispanic paradox: demographic and epidemiologic approaches. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 954(1), 140–174.Google Scholar
  38. Palloni, A., & Arias, E. (2004). Paradox lost: explaining the Hispanic adult mortality advantage. Demography, 41(3), 385–415.Google Scholar
  39. Pattnayak, S. R., & Shai, D. (1995). Mortality Rates as Indicators of Cross-Cultural Development. Journal of developing societies, 11, 252.Google Scholar
  40. Pebley, A.R. (2003). Infant and Child Mortality. In P. Demeny and G. McNicoll (eds.), Encyclopedia of Population. New York, NY: Macmillan, vol. 2, 533–536.Google Scholar
  41. Poston, D.L., Jr. and Bouvier, L.F. (2017). Population and Society: An Introduction to Demography. Second edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Poston, D.L., Jr. and Rogers, R.G. (1985). Toward a Reformulation of the Neonatal Mortality Rate. Social Biology 32: 1–12.Google Scholar
  43. Preston S.H. and Elo I.T. (1999) Effects of age misreporting on mortality estimates at older ages. Population studies, 53(2):165–177.Google Scholar
  44. Rumbaut, R. and Weeks, J. (1996). Unraveling a Public Health Enigma: Why Do Immigrants Experience Superior Health Outcomes?, Research in the Sociology of Health Care, 13B:337–391.Google Scholar
  45. Shryock, H.S., Siegel, J.S., and Associates. (1976). The Methods and Materials of Demography. Condensed edition by E.G. Stockwell. New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  46. Siegel J.S., and Swanson, D.A. (2004). The Methods and Materials of Demography. Second edition. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.Google Scholar
  47. Singh, G. K., & Yu, S. M. (1996). Adverse pregnancy outcomes: differences between US-and foreign-born women in major US racial and ethnic groups. American Journal of Public Health, 86(6), 837–843.Google Scholar
  48. Sorlie, P., Backlund, E., Johnson, N. and Rogot, E. (1993). Mortality by Hispanic Status in the United States. Journal of American Medical Association, 270(20).Google Scholar
  49. Southall, D. (2011). Armed conflict women and girls who are pregnant, infants and children; a neglected public health challenge. What can health professionals do?. Early human development, 87(11), 735–742Google Scholar
  50. Stockwell, E. G., Wicks, J. W., & Adamchak, D. J. (1978). Research needed on socioeconomic differentials in US mortality. Public Health Reports, 93(6), 666.Google Scholar
  51. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2016). Uprooted: The growing crisis for refugee and migrant children. Unicef, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  52. United Nations (2015). Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 21 October 2015, A/RES/70/1, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/57b6e3e44.html
  53. United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimates (UN-IGME) (2017). Levels & Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2017. United National Children’s Fund, New York.Google Scholar
  54. United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimates (UN-IGME) (2018). Levels & Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2018. United National Children’s Fund, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Van Den Oord, E.J., and Rowe, D.C. (2000). Racial Differences in Birth Health Risk: A Quantitative Genetic Approach. Demography, 37: 285–298.Google Scholar
  56. Van de Poel, E., O’Donnell, O., & Van Doorslaer, E. (2007). Are urban children really healthier? Evidence from 47 developing countries. Social science & medicine, 65(10), 1986–2003.Google Scholar
  57. Van de Poel, E., O’donnell, O., & Van Doorslaer, E. (2009). What explains the rural-urban gap in infant mortality: household or community characteristics?. Demography, 46(4), 827–850.Google Scholar
  58. Watkins, K. (2016). Longer lives and unfinished agendas on child survival. The Lancet, 388(10053), 1450–1452.Google Scholar
  59. Wang, L. (2003). Determinants of child mortality in LDCs: empirical findings from demographic and health surveys. Health policy, 65(3), 277–299.Google Scholar
  60. Wang, H., Liddell, C. A., Coates, M. M., Mooney, M. D., Levitz, C. E., Schumacher, A. E. et al. (2014). Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet, 384(9947), 957–979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology & BiostatisticsTexas A&M School of Public HealthCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Census BureauSuitlandUSA
  3. 3.Texas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations