Advertisement

Intraocular Tumors

  • Brian MarrEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Intraocular tumors make up a broad spectrum of malignant and benign lesions that can impact patients’ vision and life. It is important to be able to identify these conditions for many of them have systemic implications, whether it be an associated medical condition, syndrome, or malignancy. The eye is composed of many specialized tissues including connective tissue, neural tissue, muscle, and vasculature. The two main intraocular structures are the retina and uvea. The retina is composed of neural, glial, and vascular cells, while the uvea is composed of melanocytes, muscle, connective tissue, and vasculature. Primary intraocular tumors originate from these cell types. Both retina and uvea are highly vascularized tissues and can be affected by systemic diseases. Identification and diagnosis of retinal and uveal conditions are unique in that most of them are identified by direct visualization by a skilled examiner. Presumed diagnoses can be confirmed and documented with the help of highly specialized imaging modalities such as fluorescence angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), ultrasonography, and funduscopic photography.

Keywords

Intraocular tumors Uveal tumors Iris melanoma Retinal hemangioblastoma Intraocular lymphoma Retinoblastoma Astrocytic hamartomas Melanocytoma 

Suggested Reading

  1. Augsburger JJ, Schroeder RP, Territo C, Gamel JW, Shields JA. Clinical parameters predictive of enlargement of melanocytic choroidal lesions. Br J Ophthalmol. 1989;73:911–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chan CC, Rubenstein JL, Coupland SE, Davis JL, Harbour JW, Johnston PB, Cassoux N, Touitou V, Smith JR, Batchelor TT, Pulido JS. Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma: a report from an International Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Collaborative Group symposium. Oncologist. 2011;16:1589–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dogrusöz M, Jager MJ. Genetic prognostication in uveal melanoma. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017;  https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.13580. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
  4. Lois N, Shields CL, Shields JA, Mercado G. Primary cysts of the iris pigment epithelium: clinical features and natural course in 234 patients. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:1879–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Saunders T, Margo CE. Intraocular medulloepithelioma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2012;136:212–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Schachat AP, Shields JA, Fine SL, et al. Combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Ophthalmology. 1984;91:1609–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Schefler AC, Kim RS. Recent advancements in the management of retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma. F1000Res. 2018;7. pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-476.  https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.11941.1. eCollection 2018. Review.
  8. Shields JA. Primary cysts of the iris. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1981;79:771–809.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Shields JA, Shields CL, Materin MA, Marr BP, Demirci H, Mashayekhi A. Changing concepts in management of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma: the 2003 J. Howard stokes lecture, part 1. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2004;35:383–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Shields JA, Demirci H, Mashayekhi A, Eagle RC, Shields CL. Melanocytoma of the optic disk: a review. Surv Ophthalmol. 2006;51:93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Shields CL, Kancherla S, Patel J, et al. Clinical survey of 3680 iris tumors based on age at presentation. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:407–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Shields CL, Kaliki S, Hutchinson A, Nickerson S, Patel J, Kancherla S, Peshtani A, Nakhoda S, Kocher K, Kolbus E, Jacobs E, Garoon R, Walker B, Rogers B, Shields JA. Iris nevus growth into melanoma: analysis of 1611 consecutive eyes: the ABCDEF guide. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:766–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Shields JA, Magrath GN, Shields C, Mackool R, Eagle RC Jr, Grossniklaus HE. Dissecting aortic aneurysm 55 years after diagnosis of Iris Flocculi. Ocul Oncol Pathol. 2016;2:222–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sisley K, Curtis D, Rennie IG, Rees RC. Loss of heterozygosity of the thyroid hormone receptor B in posterior uveal melanoma. Melanoma Res. 1993;3:457–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wang W, Chen L. Cavernous hemangioma of the retina: a comprehensive review of the literature (1934–2015). Retina. 2017;37:611–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Columbia University Irving Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Edward S. Harkness Eye InstituteColumbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations