Intraocular tumors make up a broad spectrum of malignant and benign lesions that can impact patients’ vision and life. It is important to be able to identify these conditions for many of them have systemic implications, whether it be an associated medical condition, syndrome, or malignancy. The eye is composed of many specialized tissues including connective tissue, neural tissue, muscle, and vasculature. The two main intraocular structures are the retina and uvea. The retina is composed of neural, glial, and vascular cells, while the uvea is composed of melanocytes, muscle, connective tissue, and vasculature. Primary intraocular tumors originate from these cell types. Both retina and uvea are highly vascularized tissues and can be affected by systemic diseases. Identification and diagnosis of retinal and uveal conditions are unique in that most of them are identified by direct visualization by a skilled examiner. Presumed diagnoses can be confirmed and documented with the help of highly specialized imaging modalities such as fluorescence angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), ultrasonography, and funduscopic photography.
KeywordsIntraocular tumors Uveal tumors Iris melanoma Retinal hemangioblastoma Intraocular lymphoma Retinoblastoma Astrocytic hamartomas Melanocytoma
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