Thyroid Eye Disease

  • Ashley A. CampbellEmail author
  • Michael Kazim


The diagnosis and management of TED can be challenging for the clinician, given the diversity of clinical phenotypes. Treatment must be tailored to the severity and prognosis of the disease in each individual patient. All patients who smoke should be strongly encouraged to stop given that this is the most prominent modifiable risk factor. While most patients require only supportive measures, a significant minority requires medical and/or surgical intervention to reverse the disabling and vision-threatening features of the disease.


Thyroid eye disease Eye thyroid disease Graves’ orbitopathy Graves’ ophthalmopathy Diseases of the orbit 

Suggested Reading

  1. Bahn RS, Kazim M. Chapter 12: Thyroid eye disease. In: Fay A, Dolman PJ, editors. Diseases and disorders of the orbit and ocular adnexa. 1st ed: Elsevier; 2016. p. 219–34.Google Scholar
  2. Kazim M. Chapter 8. The role of orbital radiotherapy in the management of thyroid related orbitopathy. In: Guthoff R, Katowitz JA, editors. Oculoplastics and orbit. 1st ed: Springer; 2006. p. 91–5.Google Scholar
  3. Kazim M, Garrity JA. Orbital radiation therapy for thyroid eye disease. J Neuroophthalmol. 2012;32(2):172–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Rootman J, Dolman PJ. Chapter 8, Thyroid orbitopathy. In: Diseases of the orbit. A multidisciplinary approach: Lippincott Williams & Wilings; 2003.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Edward S. Harkness Eye InstituteColumbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

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