Age-Related Macular Degeneration

  • Victoria NorthEmail author
  • Srilaxmi Bearelly


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. AMD can be non-neovascular or neovascular, and either type can progress to irreversible central vision loss. In the primary care setting, emphasis is on early detection of disease and prevention of progression to advanced disease when possible. This requires close follow-up, education, and lifestyle modification. Supplementation with antioxidants and zinc may be useful for patients with moderate disease. For patients with neovascular AMD, treatment with intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF molecules such as ranibizumab can slow disease progression and may even improve vision from baseline presentation. Finally, there are many promising areas of ongoing research with the potential to influence treatment and prognosis. These include intraocular implants that may provide sustained delivery of biologics, complement factor inhibitors, retinoid inhibitors, RPE or stem cell transplantation, and many more.


Age-related macular degeneration Neovascular age-related macular degeneration Non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration Photodynamic therapy for age-related macular degeneration Age-related macular degeneration and micronutrients deficiency Amsler grid Pharmacotherapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Columbia University Irving Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Ophthalmology, Edward S. Harkness Eye InstituteColumbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

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