• Leejee H. Suh
  • Steven A. KaneEmail author


Cataracts are a leading cause of blindness in the world, contributing to approximately 51% of world blindness, which represents about 20 million people (WHO 2010). The most significant and discouraging aspect of this fact is that while cataract blindness is reversible, the number of people blind from cataracts increases each year due to a shortage of healthcare providers. In the United States, cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the Medicare-aged population. Cataracts affect more than 24.4 million Americans age 40 or older, and by age 75, approximately half of all Americans have cataracts. Cataracts affect a much smaller population of children but with significant socioeconomic impact. In 2015, about 3 million cataract procedures were performed in the United States with an estimated $6.8 billion in direct costs. Because of the magnitude of both the number of individuals affected and the associated healthcare costs, considerable effort has been spent to ensure the highest quality care is delivered using the most cost-effective techniques.


Cataracts Pediatric cataracts Cataracts in children Cataract blindness Age-related cataracts Amblyopia and cataract Congenital cataract Pediatric aphakia Nuclear sclerosis 

Suggested Reading

Adult Cataract

  1. Cataract Management Guideline Panel. Clinical practice guidelines (4): cataracts in adults: management of functional impairment. AHCPR publication no. 93-0542. Rockville: US Department of Health & Human Services; 1993.Google Scholar
  2. Grewal DS, Schultz T, Basti S, Dick HB. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery- current status and future directions. Surv Ophthalmol. 2016;61(2):103–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Lee CM, Afshari NA. The global state of cataract blindness. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2017;28(1):98–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Olson RJ, Braga-Mele R, Chen SH, Miller KM, Pineda R, Tweeten JP, Musch DC. Cataract in the adult eye preferred practice pattern. Ophthalmology. 2017;124(2):120–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Thompson J, Lakhani N. Cataracts. Prim Care. 2015;42(3):409–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Pediatric Cataract

  1. Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. Comparison of contact lens and intraocular lens correction of monocular aphakia during infancy: a randomized clinical trial of HOTV optotype acuity at age 4.5 years and clinical findings at age 5 years. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132(6):676–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. McClatchey SK, Parks MM. Theoretic refractive changes after lens implantation in childhood. Ophthalmology. 1997;104(11):1744–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Rahi JS, Logan S, Timms C, Russell-Iggitt I, Taylor D. Risks, causes, and outcomes of visual impairment after loss of vision in the non-amblyopic eye: a population-based study. Lancet. 2002;360(9333):597–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Wiesel T, Hubel D. Comparison of the effects of unilateral and bilateral eye closure on cortical unit responses in kittens. J Neurophysiol. 1965;28:1029–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Columbia University Irving Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Edward S. Harkness Eye InstituteColumbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations