Advertisement

Dry Eye Syndrome

  • Danielle TriefEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Dry eye syndrome (DES, also referred to as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or KCS) is very common, affecting between 5% and 30% of the population. Symptoms range from occasional irritation to debilitating pain and visual compromise. Numerous studies have found that DES significantly affects patient’s quality of life. In 2015 alone, the sale of dry eye medications and devices accounted for $3.2 billion, and this is expected to grow to $4.5 billion by 2020. While it is easy to identify the symptoms associated with dry eye (foreign body sensation, grittiness, epiphora, burning, etc.), it is much more challenging to define the syndrome itself. “Dry eye” is a multifactorial and complicated condition, dependent on tear production and evaporation, inflammation of the ocular surface, and patient symptomatology.

Keywords

Dry eye syndrome Keratoconjunctivitis sicca Schirmer test Tear composition assay Evaporative tear dysfunction Sjögren’s syndrome and dry eye 

Suggested Reading

  1. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ocular surface disease: diagnostic approach. Basic and clinical science course, section 8, 2011–2012. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2011. p. 51.Google Scholar
  2. Barabino S, Labetoulle M, Rolando M, Messmer EM. Understanding symptoms and quality of life in patients with dry eye syndrome. Ocul Surf. 2016;14(3):365–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Craig JP, Nichols KK, Akpek EK, Caffery B, Dua HS, Joo CK, Liu Z, Nelson JD, Nichols JJ, Tsubota K, Stapleton F. TFOS DEWS II definition and classification report. Ocul Surf. 2017;15(3):276–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Lemp MA. Advances in understanding and managing dry eye disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146(3):350–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lemp MA, Bron AJ, Baudouin C, Benítez Del Castillo JM, Geffen D, Tauber J, Foulks GN, Pepose JS, Sullivan BD. Tear osmolarity in the diagnosis and management of dry eye disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;151(5):792–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Schiffman RM, Christianson MD, Jacobsen G, Hirsch JD, Reis BL. Reliability and validity of the ocular surface disease index. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(5):615–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the definition and classification subcommittee of the international dry eye workshop (2007). No authors listed. Ocul Surf. 2007;5(2):75–92.Google Scholar
  8. Vitali C, Bombardieri S, Jonsson R, Moutsopoulos HM, Alexander EL, Carsons SE, Daniels TE, Fox PC, Fox RI, Kassan SS, Pillemer SR, Talal N, Weisman MH, European Study Group on Classification Criteria for Sjögren’s Syndrome. Classification criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61(6):554–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Columbia University Irving Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Edward S. Harkness Eye InstituteColumbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations