Dry Eye Syndrome
Dry eye syndrome (DES, also referred to as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or KCS) is very common, affecting between 5% and 30% of the population. Symptoms range from occasional irritation to debilitating pain and visual compromise. Numerous studies have found that DES significantly affects patient’s quality of life. In 2015 alone, the sale of dry eye medications and devices accounted for $3.2 billion, and this is expected to grow to $4.5 billion by 2020. While it is easy to identify the symptoms associated with dry eye (foreign body sensation, grittiness, epiphora, burning, etc.), it is much more challenging to define the syndrome itself. “Dry eye” is a multifactorial and complicated condition, dependent on tear production and evaporation, inflammation of the ocular surface, and patient symptomatology.
KeywordsDry eye syndrome Keratoconjunctivitis sicca Schirmer test Tear composition assay Evaporative tear dysfunction Sjögren’s syndrome and dry eye
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