Advertisement

The Archive, Assemblage and Archaeology

  • Victoria Grace WaldenEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter is the first of this book’s analytical chapters. It is interested in non-fiction films that engage with, and more importantly appear to interrogate and manipulate, archive footage. It explores what emerges when celluloid archive footage and video or digital are juxtaposed together in Free Fall (Péter Forgács, 1996) and A Film Unfinished (Yael Hersonski, 2010) respectively. It considers what happens when past and contemporary media and images come into contact, and how this might encourage the production of Holocaust memory. This chapter interrogates theories of cinematic realism. Resisting suggestions that film can present the reality of the past, it turns instead to the real of the viewing experience to consider how its assemblage nature creates a collaborative, productive environment that enables producers, spectator, film, media technologies, individuals from the past captured onscreen, and archive materials to perpetuate memory of the Holocaust. My discussion of A Film Unfinished particularly highlights the archaeological nature of the film and how its desire to disrupt any previous meaning related to perpetrator-commissioned images can be a powerful tool for memory.

References

  1. Balint, R. (2014). Representing the Past and the Meaning of Home in Péter Forgács’s Private Hungary. In L. Rascaroli & G. Young (Eds.), Amateur Filmmaking: The Home Movie, the Archive, the Web (pp. 193–206). New York and London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  2. Bangert, A., Gordon, R. S. C., & Saxton, L. (2013). Introduction. In A. Bangert, R. S. C. Gordon, & L. Saxton (Eds.), Holocaust Intersections: Genocide and Visual Culture at the New Millennium (pp. 1–23). London: LEGENDA.Google Scholar
  3. Barker, J. M. (2009). The Tactile Eye: Touch and the Cinematic Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baron, J. (2014). The Archive Effect: Found Footage and the Audiovisual Experience of History. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Barthes, R. (1993). Camera Lucida. London: Vintage.Google Scholar
  6. Bazin, A. (1971a). The Ontology of the Photographic Image. In A. Bazin (Ed.), What Is Cinema? (pp. 9–16). Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bazin, A. (1971b). The Evolution of the Language of Cinema. In A. Bazin (Ed.), What Is Cinema? (pp. 23–40). Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bazin, A. (2003). Death Every Afternoon (M. A. Cohen, Trans.). In I. Margulies (Ed.), Rites of Realism: Essays on Corporeal Cinema (pp. 27–31). Durham and London: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boyle, D. (2001). Meanwhile Somewhere … A Conversation with Péter Forgács. Millennium Film Journal, 37, 52–66.Google Scholar
  10. Coleman, F. (2011). Deleuze and Cinema: The Film Concepts. Oxford and New York: Berg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deleuze, G. (2005 [1986]). Cinema 1 (H. Tomlinson & B. Habberjam, Trans.). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  12. Deleuze, G. (2005 [1989]). Cinema 2 (H. Tomlinson & R. Galeta, Trans.). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  13. Deleuze, G. (2015 [1986]). Foucault (S. Hand, Trans.). London and New York: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  14. Deleuze, G., & Guattari. F. (2004 [1987]). A Thousand Plateaus (B. Massumi, Trans.). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  15. Didi-Huberman, G. (2005 [1990]). Confronting Images: Questioning the Ends of a Certain History of Art (J. Goodman, Trans.). University Park: Pennsylvanian State University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Didi-Huberman, G. (2012 [2008]). Images in Spite of All: Four Photographs of Auschwitz. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  17. Forgács, P. (dir.). (1994). Meanwhile Somewhere. Hans Bosschert/ LA CAMERA STYLO/ RTBF/ BBSA/ Hungarian TV1/ Duna TV.Google Scholar
  18. Forgács, P. (dir.). (1996). Free Fall. For-Creation Bt./MTFA/MMKA/The Soro Foundation/ Private Photo and Film Archive Budapest.Google Scholar
  19. Forgács, P. (dir.). (1997). Class Lot. The Hungarian Motion Picture Foundation/The Hungarian Historic Film Foundation/The Soros Foundation Budapest/The Private Photo and Film Archive [TV].Google Scholar
  20. Forgács, P. (dir.). (1997). The Maelstrom: A Family Chronicle. Private Photo and Film Archive Budapest [TV].Google Scholar
  21. Forgács, P. (dir.). (1988). Bartos Family. Private Film Archives/Soros Foundation [TV].Google Scholar
  22. Forgács, P. (dir.). (1998). The Danube Exodus. For-Creation Bt/ MTFA/MMKA/ The Soros Foundation/ Private Photo and Film Archive Budapest/ MTV Rt/ BBS [TV].Google Scholar
  23. Godard, J.-L. (dir.). (1994). Histoire(s) du cinéma. Gaumont/Peripheria.Google Scholar
  24. Hagedoorn, B. (2009). “Look what I found!”: (Re-)crossing Boundaries Between Public/Private History and Biography/Autobiography in Péter Forgác’s “The Maelstrom”. Studies in Documentary Film, 3(2), 177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hersonski, Y. (dir.). (2010). A Film Unfinished (shtikat haarchion). Oscilloscope Laboratories.Google Scholar
  26. Hersonski, Y. (2016). Witnessing the Archive. In C. Fogu, W. Kansteiner, & T. Presner (Eds.), Probing the Ethics of Holocaust Culture (pp. 277–282). Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hildebrant, D. (dir.). (1981). The Yellow Star: The Persecution of the Jews in Europe (Der gelbe Stern), 1933–1945. Chronos-Film / Michael Arthur Film Production.Google Scholar
  28. Kracauer, S. (1960). Theory of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Lanzmann, C. (2007). From the Holocaust to “Holocaust”. In S. Liebman (Ed.), Claude Lanzmann’s Shoah (pp. 27–36). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Lebovic, N. (2016). Freeze-Framing: Temporality and the Archives in Forgács, Hersonski, and Friedländer. In C. Fogu, W. Kansteiner, & T. Presner (Eds.), Probing the Ethics of Holocaust Culture (pp. 257–276). Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liebman, S. (2011). The Never-Ending Story: Yael Hersonski’s “A Film Unfinished”. Cineaste (Summer), pp. 15–40.Google Scholar
  32. MacDonald, S. (2005). Peter Forgács. A Critical Cinema 4: Interviews with Independent Filmmakers (pp. 289–321). Berkeley and London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  33. Marks, L. U. (2000). The Skin of the Film: Intercultural Cinema, Embodiment and the Senses. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Marks, L. U. (2002). Touch: Sensuous Theory and Multisensory Media. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  35. Lester, E. (dir.). (1960). Mein Kampf (den blodiga tiden). Minerva Film AB.Google Scholar
  36. Mulvey, L. (2006). Death 24× a Second: Stillness and the Moving Image. London: Reaktion Books.Google Scholar
  37. Nichols, B. (2011). Introduction. In B. Nichols & M. Renov (Eds.), Cinema’s Alchemist: The Films of Péter Forgács (pp. vii–xxi). Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Resnais, A. (dir.). (1956). Night and Fog (Nuit et brouillard). Argos Films.Google Scholar
  39. Renov, M. (2011). Historical Discourses of the Unimaginable: The Maelstrom. In B. Nichols & M. Renov (Eds.), Cinema’s Alchemist: The Films of Péter Forgács (pp. 85–95). Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rossif, F. (dir.). (1961). The Time of the Ghetto (Le temps du ghetto). Les Films de la Pléiade.Google Scholar
  41. Roth, M. S. (2008). Ordinary Film: Péter Forgács’s “The Maelstrom”. In K. L. Ishizuka & P. R. Zimmeran (Eds.), Mining the Home Movie: Excavations in Histories and Memories (pp. 62–72). Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  42. Sanders, W. (2011). Unfinished Logic. Dox, 91, 44–45.Google Scholar
  43. Saxton, L. (2008). Haunted Images: Film, Ethics, Testimony and the Holocaust. London: Wallflower Press.Google Scholar
  44. Silverman, K. (2011). Waiting, Hoping, among the Ruins of All the Rest. In B. Nichols & M. Renov (Eds.), Cinema’s Alchemist: The Films of Péter Forgács (pp. 96–118). Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sobchack, V. (1999). Towards Phenomenology of Non-fictional Film Experience. In M. Renov & J. Gaines (Eds.), Collecting Visible Evidence (pp. 241–254). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  46. Sobchack, V. (2004). Inscribing Ethical Space: Ten Propositions on Death, Representation, and Documentary. In Carnal Thoughts: Embodiment and Moving Image Culture (pp. 226–258). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  47. van Alphen, E. (2011). Towards a New Historiography: The Aesthetics of Temporality. In B. Nichols & M. Renov (Eds.), Cinema’s Alchemist: The Films of Péter Forgács (pp. 59–74). Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Unknown (dir.). (1967). The Warsaw Ghetto. BBC [TV].Google Scholar
  49. Wilson, E. (2005). Material Remains: Night and Fog. October, 112, 89–100.Google Scholar
  50. Wilson, E. (2014). Resnais and the Dead. In G. Pollock & M. Silverman (Eds.), Concentrationary Cinema: Aesthetics as Political Resistance in Alain Resnais’s Night and Fog (pp. 126–139). London and New York: Berghahn.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of SussexBrightonUK

Personalised recommendations