Local Implementation of National Policy: Social Justice Perspectives from the USA, India, and Wales
It is common to find generic descriptors being used to summarise the characteristics of national educational systems, but while it is convenient to use headings such as ‘Education in The USA’ or ‘Schools in India’, these hide a multitude of differences within such large nations. The macro view obtained through policy analysis of national government legislation may provide what seems to be a coherent approach to education, but the interpretation of policy through meso (regional) and micro (institutional) filters (or even through individual compliance or non-compliance) often results in policies being misinterpreted, reinterpreted, or ignored in their enactment. This chapter examines the views of social justice leaders in three countries; two of them are large in population terms (The USA and India), one is small geographically and demographically (Wales). The small-scale research carried out attempted to identify whether the nationally generated (macro-level) social justice policies were able to be applied effectively at institutional (micro) level.
- Estyn. (2015). Improving schools through regional education consortia. Cardiff: Estyn.Google Scholar
- Fowler, F. C. (2013). Policy studies for educational leaders. Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Freire, P. (1992). Pedagogy of hope. New York: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
- Garcia, O., & Baker, C. (1995). Policy and practice in bilingual education: A reader extending the foundations. Adelaide, Australia: Multilingual Matters Ltd.Google Scholar
- Government of India. (2012). Vision of teacher education in India: Quality and regulatory perspective. Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
- Government of India. (2017). Statistical Year Book India 2017. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. http://www.mospi.gov.in/statistical-year-book-india/2017. Accessed 31 January 2018.
- Governors Wales. (2013). What are the regional consortia? http://www.governorswales.org.uk/faqs/2013/10/17/what-are-regional-consortia/. Accessed 28 January 2018.
- Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO). (1998). Government of Wales Act 1998. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
- Istance, D., & Rees, G. (1994). Education and training in Wales: Problems and paradoxes revisited. Contemporary Wales, 7, 7–27.Google Scholar
- Mourshed, M., Chijoke, C., & Barber, M. (2010). How the world’s most improved systems keep getting better. McKinsey & Company Report. http://www.mckinsey.com. Accessed 31 January 2018.
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2014). Improving schools in Wales: An OECD perspective. http://www.oecd.org/education/Improving-schools-in-Wales.pdf. Accessed 15 February 2018.
- Outreach International. (2018). India. https://outreach-international.org/places/india/?gclid=CjwKCAiA78XTBRBiEiwAGv7EksTtQiKn_IfTbIzqZoYAVBgXKkafBUclHaztOzAHVImEkxtIM89vShoCjYwQAvD_BwE. Accessed 31 January 2018.
- Rizvi, G. (2007). Emergent India: Globalization, democracy, and social justice. International Journal Toronto, 62(4), 753–768.Google Scholar
- Urban, W. J., & Wagoner, J. L., Jr. (2004). American education: A history (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. U.S. Const. Amend. X.Google Scholar
- Ward, S. C., Bagley, C., Lumby, J., Hamilton, T., Woods, P., & Roberts, A. (2016). What is ‘policy’ and what is ‘policy response’? An illustrative study of the implementation of the leadership standards for social justice in Scotland. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 44(1), 43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Welsh Assembly Government. (2008). Personal and social education framework for 7 to 19-year-olds in Wales. Cardiff: Welsh Assembly Government.Google Scholar
- Welsh Government. (2014a). Qualified for life: An education improvement plan for 3 to 19-year-Olds in Wales. Cardiff: Welsh Government.Google Scholar
- Welsh Government. (2014b). The Welsh index of multiple deprivation (WIMD). Cardiff: Welsh Government.Google Scholar
- Welsh Government. (2015a). A curriculum for Wales—A curriculum for life. Cardiff: Welsh Government.Google Scholar
- Welsh Government. (2015b). Review to identify more able and talented provision across Wales. Cardiff: Welsh Government.Google Scholar
- Welsh Government. (2016). Mid-year estimation of the population. http://gov.wales/statistics-and-research/mid-year-estimates-population/?lang=en. Accessed 28 January 2018.
- Welsh Government. (2017a). Achievement and entitlement to free school meals. http://gov.wales/statistics-and-research/academic-achievement-free-school-meals/?lang=en. Accessed 19 July 2018.
- Welsh Government. (2017b). Education in Wales: Our national mission. Cardiff: Welsh Government.Google Scholar
- Welsh Government. (2017c). The SEREN Network. http://gov.wales/topics/educationandskills/learningproviders/seren/?lang=en. Accessed 27 January 2018.