The Role of Interventional Procedures in Childhood and Adolescent Headaches-Peripheral Neuromodulation
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Some headache disorders can be intractable and fail to respond to conventional medical treatment and psychological interventions. Non-pharmacological interventions may provide a useful alternative for such patients. Electrical nerve stimulation, nerve blockade or trans-cranial magnetic stimulation are potential therapies that have been studied and shown to have a role to play in the management of adult patients with some chronic headache disorders. Stimulation or blockade of greater occipital nerve, trigeminal nerve ganglion or the vagus nerve may also be useful in the management of headache disorders in children. However, the evidence for such strategies is still evolving and mostly based on small open studies.
In this chapter, we will examine the available treatment modalities, their mechanisms of action and their potential use in children and adolescents.
KeywordsGreater occipital nerve Headache Migraine Neuromodulation Transcranial magnetic stimulation Trigeminal nerve
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