Comorbidity, Multi-Morbidity, Stepped Care and Skill Mix in the Care of the Older Population

  • Gabriel Ivbijaro
  • David Goldberg
  • Yaccub Enum
  • Lucja Kolkiewicz


One of the consequences of an ageing population is the increasing prevalence of people living with more than one long-term condition (multi-morbidity). The coexistence of more than one long-term condition often has poorer outcomes for older adults and makes them more likely to access care from different health and social care providers concurrently. As a result, the overall cost of managing these individuals increases. Collaborative care is a useful way of providing care for such patients, utilising the skills and expertise of different disciplines in primary, secondary care and other settings in a coordinated way. Stepped care ensures that interventions match the severity and complexity of presentation so that effort is not wasted.


Comorbidity Multi-morbidity Collaborative care Stepped care 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel Ivbijaro
    • 1
    • 2
  • David Goldberg
    • 3
  • Yaccub Enum
    • 4
    • 5
  • Lucja Kolkiewicz
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.NOVA UniversityLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Waltham Forest Community and Family Health ServicesLondonUK
  3. 3.King’s CollegeLondonUK
  4. 4.Public Health DepartmentLondon Borough of Waltham ForestLondonUK
  5. 5.East London NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  6. 6.East London NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK

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