Scheimpflug Camera-Based Systems

  • Melanie Corbett
  • Nicholas Maycock
  • Emanuel Rosen
  • David O’Brart


The Scheimpflug principles enable the capture of focused images of objects that are not parallel to the camera and lens, such as a curved cornea. This is achieved by careful movement of the image and lens planes. In the Pentacam, this is achieved by rotation around a central axis and capture of 50 meridional pictures.

Scheimpflug photography images the anterior segment and uses ray-tracing algorithms to provide data on the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces, corneal pachymetry and anterior chamber depth. The effects of misalignment and eye movement can be reduced by using a dual Scheimpflug system with two cameras. The accuracy of measurements can be improved by incorporating Placido imaging into the device.


Corneal topography Scheimpflug Ray-tracing algorithms Corneal shape Corneal elevation Corneal pachymetry Anterior chamber depth 


  1. 1.
    Scheimpflug T. Improved method and apparatus for the systematic alteration or distortion of plane pictures and images by means of lenses and mirrors for photography and for other purposes. GB Patent No. 1196. Filed 16 January 1904, and issued 12 May 1904.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dubbellman M, Van Der Heijde RGL. The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradoxon. Vis Res. 2001;41:1867–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dubbellman M, Weeber HA, Van Der Heijde RGL, Volker-Dieben HJ. Radius and aspericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2002;80:379–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gilani F, Cortese M, Ambrósio RR Jr, et al. Comprehensive anterior segment normal values generated by rotating Scheimpflug tomography. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2013;39(11):1707–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aramberri J, Araiz L. Garcia A. et al. Dual versus single Scheimpflug camera for anterior segment analysis: precision and agreement. J Cataract Refract Surg 2012;38(11):1934–1949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mandell RB, St. Helen R. Stability of the corneal contour. Am J Optom. 1968;45(12):797–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roberts C. . The resolution necessary for surface height measurements of the cornea. Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, October 2–7 1994.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ciolino JB, Belin MW. Changes in the posterior cornea after LASIK and PRK. J Caract Refract Surg. 2006;32:1426–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buehl W, Sojanac D, Sacu S, et al. Comparison of three methods of measuring corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lackner B, Schmidinger C, Pieh S, et al. Repeatability and reproducibility of central corneal thickness measurement with Pentacam, Orbscan and ultrasound. Optom Vis Sci. 2005;82:892–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lackner B, Schmidinger C, Skorpic C. Validity and repeatability of anterior chamber depth measurements with Pentacam and Orbscan. Optom Vis Sci. 2005;82:858–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    O’Donnell C, Maldonado-Codina C. Agreement and repeatability of central thickness measurement in normal corneas using ultrasound pachymetry and the Oculus Pentacam. Cornea. 2005;24:920–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ucakhan OO, Ozkan M, Kanpolat A. Corneal thickness measurements in normal and keratoconic eyes: Pentacam comprehensive eye scanner versus non-contact specular microscopy and ultrasound pachymetry. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:970–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ciolino JB, Khachikian SS, Cortese MJ, Belin MW. Long-term stability of the posterior cornea after LASIK. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1366–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Salvetat ML, Zeppieri M, Tosoni C, et al. Corneal deformation parameters provided by the Corvis-ST Pachy-tonometer in healthy subjects and glaucoma patients. J Glaucoma. 2015;24(8):568–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Roberts CJ. Importance of accurately assessing biomechanics of the cornea. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2016;27(4):285–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sel S, Stange J, Kaiser D, et al. Repeatability and agreement of Scheimpflug-based and swept-source optical biometry measurements. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2017;40(5):318–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shajari M, Cremonese C, Petermann K, et al. Comparison of axial length, corneal curvature, and anterior chamber depth measurements of 2 recently introduced devices to a known biometer. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;178:58–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melanie Corbett
    • 1
  • Nicholas Maycock
    • 2
  • Emanuel Rosen
    • 3
  • David O’Brart
    • 4
  1. 1.Imperial College Healthcare NHS TrustLondonUK
  2. 2.University Hospital Coventry and WarwickshireCoventryUK
  3. 3.ManchesterUK
  4. 4.Department of OphthalmologySt. Thomas HospitalLondonUK

Personalised recommendations