• Farhad Gohardani
  • Zahra Tizro
Part of the Political Economy of Islam book series (PEoI)


A brief review of the Iranian modern history demonstrates that at least three strong events (the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, the Oil Nationalization Movement (henceforth, the ONM), the Islamic Revolution of 1979) shaped the trends and patterns of socio-economic development and were associated with large-scale confrontations between the forces inside and outside the country, creating a history of instability, upheaval, and socio-political violence alongside generating large-scale restructuring of socio-economic institutions and unstoppable waves of migration.

Many commentators and observers appear to be puzzled by the seemingly unending and unpredictable waves of incessant turbulence in the Iranian society, never settling down in the form of a steady social order based on the establishment of a set of stable institutional arrangements and steady and predictable positions in terms of internal socio-economic policies and external foreign policies. The Iranian society seems to be in a state of perpetual flux and permanent turmoil. The sense of despair, disillusionment, and bewilderment appears to be equally shared between the Iranians and non-Iranians alike.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farhad Gohardani
    • 1
  • Zahra Tizro
    • 2
  1. 1.Independent EconomistYorkUK
  2. 2.University of East London (UEL)LondonUK

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