Models of Bastion Fortifications Integration in Cities
This paper examines the models of contemporary integration of bastion fortifications into the urban tissue, either in case of preserved bastion fortifications or in case of valuable urban areas created by their transformation during the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries, and also in case of spaces at the place of former fortifications in which visible physical remains of fortifications have not been preserved nor has recognizable and historically valuable urban area been created by historical transformation. Bastion fortifications, which had significantly characterized the morphology of renaissance and baroque cities during the four centuries of their existence, lost their purpose at the end of the eighteenth century. Depending on specific strategic and political circumstances, fortifications in certain cities have been preserved in their original form, whereas in others they have been partially or completely removed and the spaces at their place have experienced urban transformation. Based on the analysis of historical integration models of bastion fortifications, the analysis of urban features of spaces at the place of fortifications at the beginning of the twenty-first century and the identification of contemporary identity factors of city centres of such genesis, this paper defines three possible models to enhance future development of spaces at the place of bastion fortifications.
KeywordsBastion fortifications Urban transformation City centres Integration models
The research is a part of the scientific project ‘Heritage Urbanism—Urban and Spatial Planning Models for Revival and Enhancement of Cultural Heritage’. It is financed by the Croatian Science Foundation [HRZZ-2032] and carried out at the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Architecture.
- Božić N, Krajnik D, Ivanković V (2005) Manors of North-West Croatia—possible tourist itinerarires. In: Obad Šćitaroci M (ed) Contemporary use and creative management of Manors, Castles and Villas, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb, pp 49–56 (ISBN 953-6229-40-4)Google Scholar
- Conzen MRG (1975) Geography and townscape conservation. In: Uhlig H, Lienau C (eds) Anglo-german symposium in applied geography. GiessenWürzburg-München, Lenz, Giessen, pp 95–102Google Scholar
- Gutkind EA (1964) International History of city development—Urban development in central Europe, vol I. Collier-Macmillian Limited, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Knežević S (1996) Zagrebačka zelena potkova. Školska knjiga, ZagrebGoogle Scholar
- Krajnik D (2007) Urbanistička preobrazba bastionskih utvrđenja. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Architecture, Doktorska disertacijaGoogle Scholar
- Krajnik D (2011) Preobrazba bastionskih utvrđenja u europskim i hrvatskim gradovima. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb (ISBN 978-953-6229-78-9)Google Scholar
- Krajnik D, Petrović Krajnik L (2011) Possible approaches to the reconstuction and presentation of bastion fortifications in Croatia. In: Dolkart A, Al-Gohari OM, Rab S (eds) Conservation of architecture, Urban areas, nature and landscape, vol II. CSAAR Press, AmmanGoogle Scholar
- Krajnik D, Obad Šćitaroci M, Šmit K (2008) Preobrazba gradskih utvrđenja u javne prostore urbane društvenosti. Društvena istraživanja 17:463–482Google Scholar
- McKercher B, Du Cros H (2002) Cultural tourism: the partnership between tourism and cultural heritage management. Haworth Hospitality Press, Philadelphia (ISBN 0789011069, 9780789011060)Google Scholar
- Mollik K, Reining H, Wurzer R (1980) Plannung und Verwicklichung der Wiener Ringstrassenzone. Franz Steiner Verlag GMBH, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
- Whitehand JWR (2005) Urban Morphology. Urban Landscape Management and Fringe Belts, Urban Design 93:19–21Google Scholar