Advertisement

Developments in Friction Stir Processing—A Near Net Shape Forming Technique

  • Vivek V. Patel
  • Jay J. VoraEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology book series (MFMT)

Abstract

Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is a material processing technique which is gaining a lot of popularity in recent times as it is a solid state technique. Recently, FSP gained a lot of attention due to its various application such as grain refinement, superplasticity as near net shape forming, surface composite manufacturing, and friction stir casting to alter the cast properties. In the present chapter, FSP as near net shape forming technique has been described in different sections. Superplastic forming (more than 200% uniform elongation at elevated temperature) is considered as near net shape forming, which demands the fine-grained microstructure (<15 µm grain size) prior to forming. This microstructural requirement can be achieved in work material by FSP. Friction stir processed materials alike Al and Mg alloys have exhibited superplastic properties in order to produce near net shape material. FSP variables for superplastic forming includes tool rotation, travel speed, tool geometry, and multiple passes. Whereas superplastic forming variables include strain rate and forming temperature. The chapter focusses on application of FSP for the superplastic forming by reviewing the grain sizes achieved and elongation obtained and shall provide a comprehensive inputs to researchers/manufacturers active in field.

Keywords

Aluminum Friction stir processing Forming Superplasticity Grain refinement Microstructure 

References

  1. 1.
    Cominotti R, Gentili E (2008) Near net shape technology: an innovative opportunity for the automotive industry. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 24(6):722–727. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.rcim.2008.03.009Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Figueiredo RB, Langdon TG (2009) Strategies for achieving high strain rate superplasticity in magnesium alloys processed by equal-channel angular pressing. Scripta Mater 61(1):84–87Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chai F, Zhang D, Li Y, Zhang W (2013) High strain rate superplasticity of a fine-grained AZ91 magnesium alloy prepared by submerged friction stir processing. Mater Sci Eng, A 568:40–48Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mishra RS, Mahoney M, McFadden S, Mara N, Mukherjee A (1999) High strain rate superplasticity in a friction stir processed 7075 Al alloy. Scripta Mater 42(2):163–168Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Charit I, Mishra RS (2003) High strain rate superplasticity in a commercial 2024 Al alloy via friction stir processing. Mater Sci Eng, A 359(1):290–296Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Paradiso V, Astarita A, Carrino L, Durante M, Franchitti S, Scherillo F, Squillace A, Velotti C (2013) Numerical optimization of selective superplastic forming of friction stir processed AZ31 Mg alloy. In: Key Engineering Materials, 2013. Trans Tech Publications, pp 2212–2220Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Patel VV, Badheka V, Kumar A (2016) Friction stir processing as a novel technique to achieve superplasticity in aluminum alloys: process variables, variants, and applications. Metallogr, Microstruct, Anal 5(4):278–293Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Patel V, Badheka V, Kumar A (2016) Influence of friction stir processed parameters on superplasticity of Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy. Mater Manuf Process 31(12):1573–1582. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1080/10426914.2015.1103868Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Patel VV, Badheka VJ, Kumar A (2017) Influence of pin profile on the tool plunge stage in friction stir processing of Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy. Trans Indian Inst Met 70(4):1151–1158. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1007/s12666-016-0903-yGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ma Z (2008) Friction stir processing technology: a review. Metall Mater Trans A 39(3):642–658Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu F, Ma Z (2008) Low-temperature superplasticity of friction stir processed Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy. Scripta Mater 58(8):667–670Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mishra RS, Mahoney MW (2001) Friction stir processing: a new grain refinement technique to achieve high strain rate superplasticity in commercial alloys. Mater Sci Forum 357:507–514Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Patel VV, Sejani DJ, Patel NJ, Vora JJ, Gadhvi BJ, Padodara NR, Vamja CD (2016) Effect of tool rotation speed on friction stir spot welded AA5052-H32 and AA6082-T6 dissimilar aluminum alloys. Metallogr, Microstruct, Anal 5(2):142–148Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mishra RS, Ma Z (2005) Friction stir welding and processing. Mater Sci Eng: R: Rep 50(1):1–78Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Patel VV, Badheka VJ, Patel U, Patel S, Patel S, Zala S, Badheka K (2017) Experimental Investigation on hybrid friction stir processing using compressed air in aluminum 7075 alloy. Mater Sci Eng: R: Rep 4(9):10025–10029. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.matpr.2017.06.314Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Patel VV, Badheka VJ, Kumar A (2016) Cavitation in friction stir processing of Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy. Int J Mech Eng Robot Res 5(4):317–321. http://sci-hub.tw/10.18178/ijmerr.5.4.317-321
  17. 17.
    Mishra RS, De PS, Kumar N (2014) Friction stir processing. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Patel VV, Badheka V, Kumar A (2017) Effect of polygonal pin profiles on friction stir processed superplasticity of AA7075 alloy. J Mater Process Technol 240:68–76. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.09.009Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arbegast W, Hartley P (1999) Friction stir weld technology development at Lockheed Martin Michoud Space System–an overview. ASM Int, Trends Weld Res (USA) 541–546Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen C, Kovacevic R (2003) Finite element modeling of friction stir welding—thermal and thermomechanical analysis. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 43(13):1319–1326Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sharma V, Prakash U, Kumar BM (2015) Surface composites by friction stir processing: a review. J Mater Process Technol 224:117–134Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Patel VV, Badheka VJ, Kumar A (2016) Effect of velocity index on grain size of friction stir processed Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy. Proc Technol 23:537–542. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.protcy.2016.03.060Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Burgueño A, Dieguez T, Svoboda H (2012) Effect of processing parameters on superplastic and corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy friction stir processed. In: Materials science forum, Quebec City, Canada, 1–5 Aug 2011. Trans Tech Publication, pp 965–970Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smolej A, Klobčar D, Skaza B, Nagode A, Slaček E, Dragojević V, Smolej S (2014) Superplasticity of the rolled and friction stir processed Al–4.5Mg–0.35 Sc–0.15 Zr alloy. Mater Sci Eng, A 590:239–245Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu F, Ma Z (2011) Superplasticity governed by effective grain size and its distribution in fine-grained aluminum alloys. Mater Sci Eng, A 530:548–558Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Garcia-Bernal MA, Mishra RS, Verma R, Hernandez-Silva D (2009) High strain rate superplasticity in continuous cast Al–Mg alloys prepared via friction stir processing. Scripta Mater 60(10):850–853Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    El-Danaf EA, El-Rayes MM, Soliman MS (2011) Low temperature enhanced ductility of friction stir processed 5083 aluminum alloy. Bull Mater Sci 34(7):1447–1453Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Charit I, Mishra RS (2004) Evaluation of microstructure and superplasticity in friction stir processed 5083 Al alloy. J Mater Res 19(11):3329–3342Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wahid MA, Siddiquee AN (2018) Review on underwater friction stir welding: a variant of friction stir welding with great potential of improving joint properties. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 28(2):193–219Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    García-Bernal M, Mishra R, Verma R, Hernández-Silva D (2016) Influence of friction stir processing tool design on microstructure and superplastic behavior of Al-Mg alloys. Mater Sci Eng, A 670:9–16Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Johannes L, Charit I, Mishra R, Verma R (2007) Enhanced superplasticity through friction stir processing in continuous cast AA5083 aluminum. Mater Sci Eng, A 464(1):351–357Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pradeep S, Pancholi V (2013) Effect of microstructural inhomogeneity on superplastic behaviour of multipass friction stir processed aluminium alloy. Mater Sci Eng, A 561:78–87Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Johannes L, Mishra R (2007) Multiple passes of friction stir processing for the creation of superplastic 7075 aluminum. Mater Sci Eng, A 464(1):255–260Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ma Z, Mishra RS, Liu F (2009) Superplastic behavior of micro-regions in two-pass friction stir processed 7075Al alloy. Mater Sci Eng, A 505(1):70–78Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mishra R, Bieler T, Mukherjee A (1995) Superplasticity in powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites. Acta Metall Mater 43(3):877–891Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Charit I, Mishra RS (2005) Low temperature superplasticity in a friction-stir-processed ultrafine grained Al–Zn–Mg–Sc alloy. Acta Mater 53(15):4211–4223Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kumar N, Mishra R (2012) Thermal stability of friction stir processed ultrafine grained Al Mg Sc alloy. Mater Charact 74:1–10Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kumar N, Mishra RS, Huskamp C, Sankaran KK (2011) Microstructure and mechanical behavior of friction stir processed ultrafine grained Al–Mg–Sc alloy. Mater Sci Eng, A 528(18):5883–5887Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kumar N, Mishra RS, Huskamp C, Sankaran KK (2011) Critical grain size for change in deformation behavior in ultrafine grained Al–Mg–Sc alloy. Scripta Mater 64(6):576–579Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Smith CB, Mishra RS (2014) Friction stir processing for enhanced low temperature formability: a volume in the friction stir welding and processing book series. Butterworth-HeinemannGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Liu F, Ma Z (2008) Achieving exceptionally high superplasticity at high strain rates in a micrograined Al–Mg–Sc alloy produced by friction stir processing. Scripta Mater 59(8):882–885Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ma Z, Liu F, Mishra R (2010) Superplastic deformation mechanism of an ultrafine-grained aluminum alloy produced by friction stir processing. Acta Mater 58(14):4693–4704Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dieguez T, Burgueño A, Svoboda H (2012) Superplasticity of a Friction Stir Processed 7075-T651 aluminum alloy. Proc Mater Sci 1:110–117Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ma Z, Mishra RS (2005) Development of ultrafine-grained microstructure and low temperature (0.48< i > T</i> <sub> m</sub>) superplasticity in friction stir processed Al–Mg–Zr. Scripta Mater 53(1):75–80Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liu F, Ma Z (2010) Contribution of grain boundary sliding in low-temperature superplasticity of ultrafine-grained aluminum alloys. Scripta Mater 62(3):125–128Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Orozco-Caballero A, Cepeda-Jiménez C, Hidalgo-Manrique P, Rey P, Gesto D, Verdera D, Ruano O, Carreño F (2013) Lowering the temperature for high strain rate superplasticity in an Al–Mg–Zn–Cu alloy via cooled friction stir processing. Mater Chem Phys 142(1):182–185Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wang K, Liu F, Ma Z, Zhang F (2011) Realization of exceptionally high elongation at high strain rate in a friction stir processed Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy with the presence of liquid phase. Scripta Mater 64(6):572–575Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    García-Bernal MA, Mishra RS, Hernández-Silva D, Sauce-Rangel VM (2017) Microstructural homogeneity and hot deformation of various friction-stir-processed 5083 Al Alloys. J Mater Eng Perform 26(1):460–464. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1007/s11665-016-2455-zGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ma Z, Mishra RS, Mahoney MW (2004) Superplasticity in cast A356 induced via friction stir processing. Scripta Mater 50(7):931–935Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liu F, Xiao B, Wang K, Ma Z (2010) Investigation of superplasticity in friction stir processed 2219Al alloy. Mater Sci Eng, A 527(16):4191–4196Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Liu F, Ma Z, Zhang F (2012) High strain rate superplasticity in a micro-grained Al–Mg–Sc alloy with predominant high angle grain boundaries. J Mater Sci Technol 28(11):1025–1030Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Liu F, Ma Z, Chen L (2009) Low-temperature superplasticity of Al–Mg–Sc alloy produced by friction stir processing. Scripta Mater 60(11):968–971Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ma Z, Mishra RS, Mahoney MW (2002) Superplastic deformation behaviour of friction stir processed 7075Al alloy. Acta Mater 50(17):4419–4430Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Liu F, Ma Z (2009) Achieving high strain rate superplasticity in cast 7075Al alloy via friction stir processing. J Mater Sci 44(10):2647–2655Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Patel VV, Badheka V, Kumar A (2017) Effect of polygonal pin profiles on friction stir processed superplasticity of AA7075 alloy. J Mater Process Technol 240(Supplement C):68–76. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.09.009Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Orozco-Caballero A, Álvarez-Leal M, Verdera D, Rey P, Ruano OA, Carreño F (2017) Evaluation of the mechanical anisotropy and the deformation mechanism in a multi-pass friction stir processed Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy. Mater Des 125(Supplement C):116–125. http://sci-hub.tw/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.03.081Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kapoor R, Kandasamy K, Mishra R, Baumann J, Grant G (2013) Effect of friction stir processing on the tensile and fatigue behavior of a cast A206 alloy. Mater Sci Eng, A 561:159–166Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Karthikeyan L, Senthilkumar V, Padmanabhan K (2010) On the role of process variables in the friction stir processing of cast aluminum A319 alloy. Mater Des 31(2):761–771Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nakata K, Kim Y, Fujii H, Tsumura T, Komazaki T (2006) Improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum die casting alloy by multi-pass friction stir processing. Mater Sci Eng, A 437(2):274–280Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Karthikeyan L, Senthilkumar V, Balasubramanian V, Natarajan S (2009) Mechanical property and microstructural changes during friction stir processing of cast aluminum 2285 alloy. Mater Des 30(6):2237–2242Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mahmoud T, Mohamed S (2012) Improvement of microstructural, mechanical and tribological characteristics of A413 cast Al alloys using friction stir processing. Mater Sci Eng, A 558:502–509Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering Department, School of Technology (SOT)Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University (PDPU)GandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations