Neither Malkas Nor Shambas: Oromo and Pokomo Conflict, 1991–2013
The underlying factors for the conflicts between the Oromo and Pokomo in the Tana Delta starting 1991 were neither Oromo watering points (malkas) nor Pokomo farmlands (shambas) but political grievances. Almost all of the armed clashes between the Oromo/Orma and Pokomo since political liberalization of 1991 were linked to national elections. Never before such organized attacks ever occurred between the two friendly communities. The chapter also draws attention to the impact of conflicts on livelihoods in all countries understudy.