Advertisement

The ‘Diversity’ Status Quo in the UK Publishing Industry

  • Melanie Ramdarshan Bold
Chapter

Abstract

The Anglo-American publishing industries have contracted in the last few decades and are now dominated by a small number of large, global media conglomerates, which subscribe to neoliberal economic models. There are, therefore, fewer gatekeepers to an industry that currently focuses on best-sellers: this means that non-mainstream/non-commercial, and/or experimental, topics, what Bourdieu called the field of restrictive production, can be overlooked and their authors often have to find alternative routes for their writing (Bourdieu 1993). The issue of commerce versus culture is one that is weaved through the history of cultural production, what Hall refers to as ‘the dialectic of cultural struggle’ (Hall in: Storey (ed) Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: A Reader, University of Georgia Press, Athens, 1998, p. 447). Hesmondhalgh and Saha (Popular Communication 11:179–195, 2013) argue that the relationship between culture and commerce is especially ‘complex and contradictory’ for producers of colour (p. 185). For example, in recent years, the media, the creative industry, and policy makers have shown an increased interest in the inequality, and the lack of ‘diversity’, in cultural production, recognising that the cultural industries are dominated by professionals from white, middle-class backgrounds. ‘Diversity’ [or lack thereof] has become a buzzword in the Anglo-American book publishing industries. It is used to describe an industry that is dominated by white, middle-class, able-bodied, cisgendered heteronormativity (in its workforce, authors, and characters). In the British book publishing industry, it is often used to describe books written by, or featuring, people of colour, and/or publishing professionals of colour. Various campaigns and initiatives to promote ‘diverse’ writing and industry professionals have followed. In this chapter, Ramdarshan Bold details the ‘diversity’ status quo in the British publishing industry. As publishers become increasingly focused on profit, they are likely to cater to existing and dominant market demands. Man-Booker winning author Marlon James has publicly spoken out about this issue, arguing that publishers aim to produce fiction that caters to the mass market and thus ‘panders to that archetype of the white woman’ (Cain 2015). Consequently, the work of authors of colour might be manipulated with the reader, or imagined audience, in mind.

Keywords

Publishing Diversity Diversity initiatives Editors Marketing Editor–author relationship Authors Authors of colour Hierarchy Gatekeepers Conglomeration Culture vs. commerce 

Works Cited

  1. Agnew, K. (2008, October 7). Imaginary Worlds Where Everyone Is the Same Colour. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/education/2008/oct/07/race.english.primaryschools. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  2. Agosto, D. E., Hughes-Hassell, S., & Gilmore-Clough, C. (2003). The All-White World of Middle School Genre Fiction: Surveying the Field for Multicultural Protagonists. Children’s Literature in Education, 34(4), 257–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmadi, A. (@arvinahmadi). (2018). I Want to Talk About a Piece of Criticism That’s Been Bugging Me Lately: That Certain Characters Are “Implausible.” Or “Too Quirky.” Maybe Even “Unrealistic” [Thread]. https://twitter.com/arvinahmadi/status/955904766630158341. 23 January 10:42 UTC.
  4. Akbar, A. (2017, November 17). Could There Really Be Only One New Black Male Novelist in Britain? The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/nov/17/one-new-black-male-novelist-britain-publishing. Accessed 4 July 2018.
  5. Alter, A. (2016, August 25). N. K. Jemisin on Diversity in Science Fiction and Inspiration from Dreams. New York Times [Online]. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/25/books/n-k-jemisin-on-diversity-in-science-fiction-and-inspiration-from-dreams.html. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  6. Anderson, C. (2006). The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Hyperion. Google Scholar
  7. Asimeng-Boahene, L., & Klein, A. M. (2004). Is the Diversity Issue a Non-issue in Mainstream Academia? Multicultural Education, 12(1), 47–52.Google Scholar
  8. Atton. (2002). Alternative Media. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  9. Balaji, M. (2009). Why Do Good Girls Have to Be Bad? The Cultural Industry’s Production of the Other and the Complexities of Agency. Popular Communication, 7(4), 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Banet-Wiseman, S. (2007). Kids Rule! Nickelodeon and Consumer Citizenship. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Banet-Wiseman, S. (2012). Authentic(TM): The Politics of Ambivalence in a Brand Culture. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Banks, M. (2007). The Politics of Cultural Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Banks, M., & Hesmondhalgh, D. (2009). Looking for Work in Creative Industries Policy. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 15(4), 415–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Banks, M., Gill, R., & Taylor, S. (Eds.). (2013). Theorizing Cultural Work: Labour, Continuity and Change in the Cultural and Creative Industries. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Belam, M., & Levin, S. (2018, March 5). Woman Behind ‘Inclusion Rider’ Explains Frances McDormand’s Oscar Speech. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/film/2018/mar/05/what-is-an-inclusion-rider-frances-mcdormand-oscars-2018. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  16. Belfon, V. (2004, June 7). Commentary. New Statesman [Online]. Available at https://www.newstatesman.com/node/159949. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  17. Bennett, T., Savage, M., Silva, E. B., Warde, A., Gayo-Cal, M., & Wright, D. (2009). Culture, Class, Distinction. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Bielby, D., & Harrington, C. L. (2004). Managing Culture Matters: Genre, Aesthetic Elements, and the International Market for Exported Television. Poetics, 32(1), 73–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Borjas, G. (2016). We Wanted Workers: Unraveling the Immigration Narrative. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  20. Born, G., & Hesmondhalgh, D. (2000). Introduction. In G. Born & D. Hesmondhalgh (Eds.), Western Music and Its Others: Difference, Representation and Appropriation in Music (p. 7). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  21. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Bourdieu, P. (1993). The Field of Cultural Production. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Bovenkerk-Teerink, L. M. (1994). Ethnic Minorities in the Media: The Case of the Netherlands. In C. Husband (Ed.), A Richer Vision: The Development of Ethnic Minority Media in Western Democracies (pp. 38–57). Paris, France: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  24. Brennan, T. (1997). At Home in the World: Cosmopolitanism Now. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Brook, O., O’Brien, D., & Taylor, M. (2018). Panic! It’s an Arts Emergency. Creative London. Available at http://createlondon.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Panic-Social-Class-Taste-and-Inequalities-in-the-Creative-Industries1.pdf. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  26. Brouillette, S. (2007). Postcolonial Writers in the Global Literary Marketplace. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar
  27. Cain, S. (2015, November 30). Marlon James: ‘Writers of Colour Pander to the White Woman’. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/nov/30/marlon-james-writers-of-colour-pander-white-woman-man-booker-event-brief-history-seven-killings. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  28. Cain, S. (2018, February 15). Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Medals Reveal More Diverse Longlist After Backlash. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/feb/15/carnegie-and-kate-greenaway-medals-reveal-more-diverse-longlist-after-backlash.
  29. Carpenter, C. (2017, October 27). Inclusive Children’s Publisher Knights of Launches. The Bookseller [Online]. Available at https://www.thebookseller.com/news/inclusive-children-s-list-knights-launches-660421. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  30. Casanova, P. (2004). The World Republic of Letters (M. DeBevoise, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Cavounidis, C., & Lang, K. (2015). Discrimination and Worker Evaluation (NBER Working Papers 21612). National Bureau of Economic Research. Available at http://www.nber.org/papers/w21612.pdf. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  32. Cawelti, J. G. (1976). Adventure, Mystery, and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. Chambers, A. (1985). ‘The Reader in the Book’, Booktalk: Occasional Writing on Literature and Children. London: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  34. Chan, T., & Goldthorpe, J. (2007). The Social Stratification of Cultural Consumption: Some Policy Implications of a Research Project. Cultural Trends, 16(4), 373–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. CILIP. (2018). CKG Diversity Review Final Report. CILIP [Online]. Available at https://www.cilip.org.uk/page/CKG-Diversity-Review-Final-Report. Accessed 28 September 2018.
  36. Coats, K. (2017). The Bloomsbury Introduction to Children’s and Young Adult Literature. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  37. Corrodus, C. (2018, August 20). Crazy Rich Asians Tops the US Box Office to Become the Biggest Romcom in Years. Telegraph [Online]. Available at https://www.telegraph.co.uk/films/2018/08/20/crazy-rich-asians-tops-us-box-office-become-biggest-romcom-years/. Accessed 28 September 2018.
  38. Cowdrey, K. (2016, September 23). Hundreds Pay to Attend Launch of Debut Mama Can’t Raise No Man. The Bookseller [Online]. Available at https://www.thebookseller.com/news/600-pay-launch-robyn-travis-mama-can-t-raise-no-man-398726. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  39. Cowdrey, K. (2018a, February 12). Jacaranda Pledges to Publish 20 Black British Writers in 2020. The Bookseller [Online]. Available at https://www.thebookseller.com/news/jacaranda-pledges-publish-20-black-british-writers-2020-729371. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  40. Cowdrey, K. (2018b, July 26). PRH Report Reveals Latest Inclusivity Stats. The Bookseller [Online]. Available at https://www.thebookseller.com/news/prh-creative-responsibility-report-reveals-increase-bame-lgbtq-and-disabled-new-hires-more. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  41. DCMS. (2016, July). ‘Taking Part 2015/16 Quarter 4: Statistical Release’, Gov.uk [online]. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/539312/Taking_Part_2015-16_Quarter_4_Report_-_FINAL.pdf.
  42. Dias, S. (2013, September 12). Embracing Diversity in YA Lit. School Library Journal [Online]. Available at https://www.slj.com/2013/09/teens-ya/embracing-diversity-in-ya-lit/#_. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  43. Ellis-Petersen, H. (2015, April 7). Male Writers Continue to Dominate Literary Criticism, Vida Study Finds. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/apr/07/male-writers-continue-dominate-literary-criticism-vida-study-finds. Accessed 15 June 2017.
  44. Ely, R. J., & Thomas, D. A. (2001). Cultural Diversity at Work: The Effects of Diversity Perspectives on Work Group Processes and Outcomes. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(2), 229–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. English, J. (2005). The Economy of Prestige: Prizes, Awards, and the Circulation of Cultural Value. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Google Scholar
  46. Epstein, J. (2002). Book Business: Publishing Past, Present, and Future. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  47. Flood, A. (2012, June 12). Books Reviewed in New York Times Are “Predominantly by White Authors”. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2012/jun/12/reviews-new-york-times-white-authors. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  48. Flood, A. (2017a, September 6). UK Publishing Industry Remains 90% White, Survey Finds. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/sep/06/uk-publishing-industry-remains-90-white-survey-finds. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  49. Flood, A. (2017b, December 11). Figures Show Children Worst Hit by Library Cuts. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/dec/11/figures-show-children-worst-hit-by-library-cuts. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  50. Freedman, D. (2014). The Contradictions of Media Power. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  51. Gandy, O. H. (1998). Communications and Race: A Structural Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Garnham, N. (1987). Concepts of Culture: Public Policy and the Cultural Industries. Cultural Studies, 1(1), 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gilroy, P. (1993). Small Acts. London: Serpents Tail.Google Scholar
  54. Gilroy, P. (2010). Darker Than Blue: On the Moral Economies of Black Atlantic Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Goldstein, M. (2017, October 8). ‘The Hate U Give’ Author Angie Thomas Picks Up a Prize at the Horn Book Awards in Boston. Boston Globe [Online]. Available at https://www.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/names/2017/10/08/the-hate-give-author-angie-thomas-picks-prize-horn-book-awards-boston/WtuaSZSo52sOHsRUmeu0zL/story.html. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  56. Gov.uk. (2017a). Ethnicity Facts and Figures. Available at https://www.ethnicity-facts-figures.service.gov.uk. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  57. Gov.uk. (2017b). Creative Industries Economic Estimates. Gov.uk [Online]. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/creative-industries-economic-estimates. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  58. Gray, K. (2004, May 22). Get Shorty. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2004/may/22/featuresreviews.guardianreview27. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  59. Gray, H. (2013). Subject(ed) to Recognition. American Quarterly, 65(4), 771–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gray, H. (2016). Precarious Diversity: Representation and Demography. In M. Curtin & K. Sanson (Eds.), Precarious Creativity: Global Media, Local Labor (pp. 241–253). Oakland: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  61. Greco, A. (1992, October 12). Publishers in Migration. Publishers Weekly, pp. 30–31.Google Scholar
  62. Guest, K. (2017, October 19). Male Writers Still Dominate Book Reviews and Critic Jobs, Vida Study Finds. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/booksblog/2017/oct/19/male-writers-still-dominate-book-reviews-and-critic-jobs-vida-study-finds. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  63. Hall, S. (1992a). The Question of Cultural Identity. In S. Hall, D. Held, & T. McGrew (Eds.), Modernity and Its Futures (p. 277). Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  64. Hall, S. (1992b). What Is This “Black” in Black Popular Culture? In G. Dent (Ed.), Black Popular Culture (pp. 21–36). Seattle, WA: Bay Press.Google Scholar
  65. Hall, S. (1996). What Is This ‘Black’ in Black Popular Culture? In D. Morley & K. Chen (Eds.), Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies (pp. 468–479). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. Hall, S. (1998). Notes on Deconstructing “The Popular”. In J. Storey (Ed.), Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: A Reader (pp. 442–453). Athens: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  67. Hall, S. (2000). Conclusion: The Multi-cultural Question. In B. Hesse (Ed.), Un/Settled Multiculturalisms: Diasporas Entanglements Transruptions (pp. 209–241). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  68. Hall, S. (2006). Notes on Deconstructing ‘The Popular’. In J. Storey (Ed.), Cultural Theory and Popular Culture (3rd ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson.Google Scholar
  69. Hardy, J. (2014). Critical Political Economy of the Media: An Introduction. New York, NY: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Havens, T. (2006). Global Television Marketplace. London: British Film Institute.Google Scholar
  71. Hesmondhalgh, D., & Baker, S. (2008). Creative Work and Emotional Labour in the Television Industry. Theory, Culture & Society, 25(7–8), 97–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hesmondhalgh, D., & Baker, S. (2010). Creative Labour. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Hesmondhalgh, D., & Saha, A. (2013). Race, Ethnicity and Cultural Production. Popular Communication, 11(3), 179–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. hooks, b. (1992). Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  75. Hope Road. (2018). About Us. Hope Road [Online]. Available at https://www.hoperoadpublishing.com/about. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  76. Horsti, K., & Hultén, G. (2011). Directing Diversity. Managing Cultural Diversity Media Policies in Finnish and Swedish Public Service Broadcasting. International Journal of Cultural Studies 14(2), 209–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Huggan, G. (2001). The Postcolonial Exotic: Marketing the Margin. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  78. Hughes, S. (2018, March 10). Interview: Tomi Adeyemi: ‘We Need a Black Girl Fantasy Book Every Month’. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/mar/10/tomi-adeyemi-interview-children-of-blood-and-bone-sarah-hughes. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  79. Husband, C. (1974). Racism and the Mass Media. London: Davis-Poynter.Google Scholar
  80. Johnston, A., & Flamiano, D. (2007). Diversity in Mainstream Newspapers from the Standpoint of Journalists of Color. Howard Journal of Communications, 18(2), 111–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jordison, S. (2011, November 17). Are Broadsheet Book Reviews ‘Bland, Boring and Formulaic’? The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2011/nov/17/broadsheet-book-reviews-bland-boring. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  82. Kean, D. (2004). In Full Colour: Cultural Diversity in Publishing Today. London: Bookseller.Google Scholar
  83. Kean, D. (2015). Writing the Future Black and Asian Authors and Publishers in the UK Marketplace. Spread the Word. Available at https://www.spreadtheword.org.uk/writing-the-future/. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  84. Kean, D. (2016, December 27). Has Publishing Really Become More Diverse? The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/dec/27/has-publishing-really-become-more-diverse. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  85. Kean, D. (2017, March 22). How Celebrity Deals Are Shutting Children’s Authors Out of Their Own Trade. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/mar/22/celebrity-deals-childrens-authors-publishing. Accessed: 23 July 2018.
  86. Khan, N. (1976). The Arts Britain Ignores: The Arts of Ethnic Minorities in Britain. The Arts Council of Great Britain: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation and Community Relations Commission.Google Scholar
  87. Kirch, C. (2018, February 8). Penguin Young Readers Announces Imprint for Diverse Books [Online]. Available at https://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/childrens/childrens-industry-news/article/76003-penguin-young-readers-announces-imprint-for-diverse-books.html. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  88. Kohnen, M. (2015). Cultural Diversity as Brand Management in Cable Television. Media Industries, 2(2). Available at https://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/mij/15031809.0002.205/–cultural-diversity-as-brand-management-in-cable-television?rgn=main;view=fulltext. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  89. Kovac, M. (2008). Never Mind the Web: Here Comes the Book. Oxford, UK: Chandos.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Leong, N. (2012). Racial Capitalism. Harvard Law Review, 126(8), 2153–2225.Google Scholar
  91. Loughrey, C. (2018, February 22). Yardie Trailer: Idris Elba’s Directorial Debut Adapts a Cult Crime Novel. The Independent [Online]. Available at https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/news/idris-elba-trailer-yardie-novel-release-date-watch-jamaica-london-watch-a8223371.html. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  92. Lovegrove, S. (2018, March 18). Sharmaine Lovegrove: ‘If You Don’t Have a Diverse Workforce or Product, Sooner or Later You Won’t Exist’. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/mar/18/sharmaine-lovegrove-if-you-dont-have-diverse-workforce-wont-exist-dialogue-books-interview. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  93. Maguire, J., & Matthews, J. (2012). Are We All Cultural Intermediaries Now? An Introduction to Cultural Intermediaries in Context. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 15(5), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Malik, S. (2002). Representing Black Britain: A History of Black and Asian Images on British Television. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  95. Malik, S. (2008). ‘Keeping It Real’: The Politics of Channel 4’s Multiculturalism, Mainstreaming and Mandates. Screen, 49(3), 343–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Malik, S. (2013). Creative Diversity: UK Public Service Broadcasting After Multiculturalism. Popular Communication, 11(3), 227–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mathieu, P., Parks, S., & Rousculp, T. (2012). Circulating Communities: The Tactics and Strategies of Community Publishing. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  98. McRobbie, A. (2002a). Clubs to Companies. Cultural Studies, 16(4), 516–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. McRobbie, A. (2002b). From Holloway to Hollywood: Happiness at Work in the New Cultural Economy? In P. Du Gay & M. Pryke (Eds.), Cultural Economy (pp. 97–114). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  100. McRobbie, A. (2004). Everyone Is Creative? Artists as Pioneers of the New Economy. In E. B. Silva & T. Bennett (Eds.), Contemporary Culture and Everyday Life (pp. 184–210). Durham, NC: Sociology Press.Google Scholar
  101. Mendelson, S. (2018, March 5). ‘Black Panther’ Box Office: More Records and Milestones as It Nears $900M Worldwide. Forbes [Online]. Available at https://www.forbes.com/sites/scottmendelson/2018/03/05/black-panther-box-office-more-records-and-milestones-as-it-nears-900m-worldwide/#49c0ce566e8c. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  102. Morrison, T. (1992). Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Google Scholar
  103. Mosley, W. (1998). Black to the Future. New York Times Magazine, 148, 32.Google Scholar
  104. Narayanan, P. (2012). What Are You Reading? The World Market and Indian Literary Production. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  105. NPR. (2010, August 20). Are ‘The New York Times’ Book Reviews Fair? [Online]. Available at https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=129324346. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  106. Oakley, K., & O’Brien, D. (2015). Cultural Value and Inequality: A Critical Literature Review. Swindon: Arts and Humanities Research Council.Google Scholar
  107. O’Brien, D., Allen, K., Friedman, S., & Saha, A. (2017). Producing and Consuming Inequality: A Cultural Sociology of the Cultural Industries. Cultural Sociology, 11(3), 271–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Older, D. J. (2014, April 18). Diversity Is Not Enough: Race, Power, Publishing. Buzzfeed [Online]. Available at https://www.buzzfeed.com/danieljoseolder/diversity-is-not-enough. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  109. Onwuemzi, N. (2015, December 7). James: “Publishers Must Go Further to Reach Diverse Groups”. The Bookseller [Online]. Available at https://www.thebookseller.com/news/marlon-james-life-after-winning-man-booker-prize-317875. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  110. Osterheldt, J. (2018, September 28) As ‘The Hate U Give’ Heads to the Big Screen, the Bestseller Is One of the Most Challenged Books. Boston Globe [Online]. Available at https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2018/09/28/the-hate-give-gears-for-big-screen-debut-bestseller-one-most-banned-books/JuYQTMB1ssYchrUMlwoJvJ/story.html. Accessed 28 September 2018.
  111. PA. (2017). PA Launches 10 Point Inclusivity Action Plan. The Publisher’s Association [Online]. Available at https://publishers.org.uk/news/press-releases/2017/pa-launches-10-point-inclusivity-action-plan/. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  112. Parmar, S. (2016, September 22). The Good Immigrant Review—An Unflinching Dialogue About Race and Racism in the UK. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/sep/22/good-immigrant-review-nikesh-shukla-britain-racist. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  113. Phillips, L. (2019, forthcoming). Mythopoeic YA: Worlds of Possibility. In R. Fitzsimmons & C. Wilson (Eds.), Beyond the Blockbusters: Themes and Trends in Contemporary Young Adult Literature.Google Scholar
  114. Ramaswamy, C. (2015, December 21). Can Hermione Be Black? What a Stupid Question. The Guardian [Online]. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/books/shortcuts/2015/dec/21/hermione-granger-black-noma-dumezwani-harry-potter-cursed-child. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  115. Ramdarshan Bold, M. (2018). The Eight Percent Problem: Authors of Colour in the British Young Adult Market (2006–2016). Publishing Research Quarterly.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12109-018-9600-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rawson, C. H. (2013). Are All Lists Created Equal? Diversity in Award-Winning and Bestselling Yound Adult Fiction. Journal of Research on Libraries and Young Adults, 1(3). Available at http://www.yalsa.ala.org/jrlya/2011/06/are-all-lists-created-equal-diversity-in-award-winning-and-bestselling-young-adult-fiction/. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  117. Reynolds, K., & Tucker, N. (Eds.). (1998). Children’s Book Publishing in Britain Since 1945. Aldershot, Hampshire: Scolar Press.Google Scholar
  118. Riordan, Ellen. (2001). Commodified Agents and Empowered Girls: Consuming and Producing Feminism. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 25(3), 279–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rosen, C. (2012, March 26). ‘Hunger Games’ Racist Tweets: Fans Upset Because of Rue’s Race. Huffington Post [Online]. Available at https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/hunger-games-racist-tweets-rue_n_1380377. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  120. Ross, C. S. (1995). ‘If They Read Nancy Drew, So What?’ Series Book Readers Talk Back. Library and Information Science Research, 17, 201–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Roy, N. (2018). When Will Science Fiction Truly Embrace Diversity? Financial Times [Online]. Available at https://www.ft.com/content/9eeeffb8-73a7-11e8-bab2-43bd4ae655dd. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  122. Saha, A. (2012). ‘Beards Scarves Halal Meat Forced Marriage’: Television Industries and the Production of ‘Race’. Media, Culture and Society, 34(4), 424–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Saha, A. (2013). ‘“Curry Tales”: The Production of Race and Ethnicity in the Cultural Industries’. Ethnicities, 13(6), 818–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Saha, A. (2015). The Marketing of Race in Cultural Production. In K. Oakley & J. O’Connor (Eds.), Routledge Companion to the Cultural Industries (pp. 99–111). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  125. Saha, A. (2016). The Rationalizing/Racializing Logic of Capital in Cultural Production. Media Industries Journal, 3(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  126. Saha, A. (2018). Race and the Cultural Industries. London: Polity.Google Scholar
  127. Schiffrin, A. (2001). The Business of Books: How the International Conglomerates Took Over Publishing and Changed the Way We Read. London and New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  128. Schmidt, G. D. (1989). So Here, My Dears, Is a New Oz Story. Children’s Literature Association Quarterly, 14, 163–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Shaffi, S. (2015, April 14). Diversity Report Finds Mono-culture Prevails in Publishing. The Bookseller [Online]. https://www.thebookseller.com/news/diversity-report-finds-mono-culture-prevails-publishing. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  130. Shapiro, L. (2018, February 23). Watch the Book Trailer for Tomi Adeyemi’s Children of Blood and Bone, One of the Biggest Deals in YA History. Vulture [Online]. Available at http://www.vulture.com/2018/02/children-of-blood-and-bone-book-trailer-tomi-adeyemi-interview.html. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  131. Slaughter, J. R. (2007). Human Rights Inc: The World Novel, Narrative Form, and International Law. New York: Fordham University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Smith, V. (2000). Are There Seats at the Round Table? An Examination of Black Characters in Heroic Fantasy. New Advocate, 13, 333–345.Google Scholar
  133. Smith, K., & Ramdarshan Bold, M. (2018). The Publishing Business: From p-Books to e-Books (2nd ed.). London: Bloomsbury.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Squires, C. (2007). Marketing Literature: The Making of Contemporary Writing in Britain. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  135. Squires, C. (2009). Marketing Literature: The Making of Contemporary Writing. London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  136. Squires, C. (2012). Too Much Rushdie, Not Enough Romance? The UK Publishing Industry and BME (Black Minority Ethnic) Readership. In B. Benwell, J. Procter, & G. Robinson (Eds.), Postcolonial Audiences: Readers, Viewers and Reception (pp. 99–111). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  137. Squires, C. (2017a). Publishing’s Diversity Deficit, Cameo Cuts: University of Leicester. Available at https://www2.le.ac.uk/institutes/cameo/cameo-cuts-1/cuts-2. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  138. Squires, C. (2017b). Taste and/or Big Data? Post‐digital Editorial Selection. Critical Quarterly, 59(3), 24–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Taylor, M. (2016). Nonparticipation or Different Styles of Participation? Alternative Interpretations from Taking Part. Cultural Trends, 25(3), 169–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Taylor, M., & O’Brien, D. (2017). ‘Culture Is a Meritocracy’: Why Creative Workers’ Attitudes May Reinforce Social Inequality. Sociological Research Online, 22(4), 27–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Thomas, D., & Ely, R. (1996). Making Differences Matter. Harvard Business Review, 74(5), 79–90.Google Scholar
  142. Titley, G. (2014). After the End of Multiculturalism: Public Service Media and Integrationist Imaginaries for the Governance of Difference. Global Media and Communication, 10(3), 247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Todorov, T. (1990). Genres in Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  144. Trombetta, S. (2018, February 21). The New Federal Budget Proposal Could Mean a Drastic Cut for Libraries, But You Can Help in an Easy Way. Bustle [Online]. Available at https://www.bustle.com/p/the-new-federal-budget-proposal-could-mean-a-drastic-cut-for-libraries-but-you-can-help-in-easy-way-8289690. Accessed 23 July 2018.
  145. Troyna, B. (1993). Racism and Education. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  146. Ursell, G. (2000). Television Production: Issues of Exploitation, Commodification and Subjectivity in UK Television Labour Markets. Media, Culture and Society, 22, 805–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. VIDA. (2016, October 17). The 2016 VIDA Count. VIDA [Online]. Available at http://www.vidaweb.org/the-2016-vida-count/. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  148. Walker, M. (2017, March 28). ‘The Hate U Give’ Author Angie Thomas on #BlackLivesMatter, Her Debut Novel and ‘Harry Potter’. Teen Vogue [Online]. Available at https://www.teenvogue.com/story/the-hate-u-give-author-angie-thomas-on-blacklivesmatter. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  149. Warwick Commission. (2015). Enriching Britain: Culture, Creativity and Growth. Warwick University. Available at https://warwick.ac.uk/research/warwickcommission/futureculture/finalreport/warwick_commission_final_report.pdf. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  150. West, C. (1990). The New Cultural Politics of Difference. October, 53(3), 93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wong, P. P. (2013, January 23). Is the Western Publishing Industry Institutionally Racist? The Huffington Post [Online]. Available at https://www.huffingtonpost.com/pp-wong-/is-the-western-publishing_b_4213879.html. Accessed: 23 March 2018.
  152. Wood, H. (2017, December 7). ‘No More Buck-Passing’, Says Carnegie Diversity Report. The Bookseller [Online]. Available at https://www.thebookseller.com/news/carnegie-and-greenaway-medals-diversity-interim-report-calls-more-transparency-687421. Accessed 23 March 2018.
  153. Young, J. K. (2006). Black Writers, White Publishers. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi.Google Scholar
  154. Yuen, N. (2016). Reel Inequality: Hollywood Actors and Racism. London: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  155. Zaid, G. (2004). So Many Books: Reading and Publishing in an Age of Abundance (N. Wimmer, Trans.). London: Sort of Books. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melanie Ramdarshan Bold
    • 1
  1. 1.University College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations