Global Scenario of Fungal White Biotechnology: Past, Present, and Future

  • Himani Meena
  • Busi Siddhardha
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


White fungal biotechnology is an emerging field in scientific arena that supports revealing of novel and vital biotechnological components. Fungi used are divided in five major economically important fields such as drug manufacturing, food and dietary, environmental, agriculture and biotechnology area. “Penicillin” drug discovery from Penicillium fungal sp. turns into a keystone for white fungal biotechnology. Fungi are treasure island for production of various intracellular enzymes and microbial based industrial product, i.e., lead bioactive compound for drug discovery, dairy product, detergent, lignocellulose, textile and biofuel. Fungi are highly diversified group of microorganism, i.e., Fusarium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, mycorrhizal fungi that produce various enzymatically active compounds, laccase, protease, chitinase, lignocellulose, etc. These heterotrophs are dominant decomposers of the soil ecosystem which allows degrading organic material, by processing the matter through biodegradation and biosorption methods. Fungi possess a symbiotic relationship with host plant based on mutualism. Fungi play an important role in plant growth promotion by producing plant growth-promoting factors, enhance phytohormone production, and secrete immune stimulatory elements. In agriculture field, crop plants are susceptible to pathogenic microbial consortia during the harvesting season, and mycorrhizal fungi play a vital role in biocontrol and also minimize abiotic stress in plants. Biofuel production using fungi is a new renewable approach to overcome fuel crisis in the world. Microbial based cleaning products replace chemicals due to high price and toxicity caused to the environment. Fungal species are versatile tools for manufacturing secondary metabolite for drug discovery and can be used as genetic model organism for insulin production. Fungi utilization can be exploited as an alternative and contemporary tactic to minimize greenhouse gas emission in the environment. Synergistic action and kinetic expression profile of saprophytic fungi are needed to explore a novel range of catalytic products that can be useful in lignocellulose degradation for synthesis of industrially important by-product. Genome data mining, metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics can be applied to build novel scientific agenda for several unknown enzymes, genes and metabolic pathways in white fungal biotechnology.


Antibiotic Bioactive compounds Biofuel Metabolic engineering White biotechnology 


  1. Agrawal N, Shahi SK (2017) Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pyrene) using novel fungal strain Coriolopsis byrsina strain APC5. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 122:69–81Google Scholar
  2. Alasmary FAS, Awaad AS, Kamal M, Alqasoumi SI, Zain ME (2018) Antitumor activity of extract and isolated compounds from Drechslera rostrata and Eurotium tonophilum. Saudi Pharm J 26:279–285Google Scholar
  3. Ali AH, Abdelrahman M, Radwan U, El-Zayat S, El-Sayed MA (2018) Effect of Thermomyces fungal endophyte isolated from extreme hot desert adapted plant on heat stress tolerance of cucumber. Appl Soil Ecol 124:155–162Google Scholar
  4. Berrin JG, Rosso MN, Hachem MA (2017) Fungal secretomics to probe the biological functions of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. Carbohydr Res 448:155–160Google Scholar
  5. Blackwell M, Vega FE (2018) Lives within lives: hidden fungal biodiversity and the importance of conservation. Fungal Ecol.
  6. Blanquez A, Rodriguez J, Brissos V, Mendes S, Martins LO, Ball AS, Arias MA, Hernández A (2018) Decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes using a versatile Streptomyces laccase-natural mediator system. Saudi J Biol Sci.
  7. Bomke C, Tudzynski B (2009) Diversity, regulation, and evolution of the gibberellin biosynthetic pathwayin fungi compared to plants and bacteria. Phytochemistry 70:1876–1893Google Scholar
  8. Bouacem K, Laribi-Habchi H, Mechri S, Hacene H, Jaouadi B, Bouanane-Darenfed A (2018) Biochemical characterization of a novel thermostable chitinase from Hydrogenophilus hirschii strain KB-DZ44. Int J Biol Macromol 106:338–350Google Scholar
  9. Cai Y, Gong Y, Liu W, Hu Y, Chen L, Yan L, Zhou Y, Bian Y (2017) Comparative secretomic analysis of lignocellulose degradation by Lentinula edodes grown on microcrystalline cellulose, lignosulfonate and glucose. J Proteome 163:92–101Google Scholar
  10. Castro RJS, Soares MH, Albernaz JRM, Sato HH (2016) Biochemical characterization of solvent, salt, surfactant and oxidizing agent tolerant proteases from Aspergillus niger produced in different agroindustrial wastes. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 5:94–98Google Scholar
  11. Chesini M, Wagner E, Baruque DJ, Vita CE, Cavalitto SF, Ghiringhelli PD, Rojas NL (2018) High level production of a recombinant acid stable exoinulinase from Aspergillus kawachii. Protein Expr Purif 147:29–37Google Scholar
  12. Dang QL, Shin TS, Park MS, Choi YH, Choi GJ, Jang KS, Kim IS, Kim JC (2014) Antimicrobial activities of novel mannosyl lipids isolated from the biocontrol fungus Simplicillium lamellicola BCP against phytopathogenic bacteria. J Agric Food Chem 62:3363–3370Google Scholar
  13. Dufosse L (2018) Red colourants from filamentous fungi: are they ready for the food industry? J Food Compos Anal 69:156–161Google Scholar
  14. Eze PM, Ojimba NK, Abonyi DO, Chukwunwejim CR, Abba CC, Okoye FBC, Esimone CO (2018) Antimicrobial activity of metabolites of an endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Citrus jambhiri (Rutaceae). Trop J Nat Prod Res 2(3):145–149Google Scholar
  15. Ferreira ICFR, Heleno SA, Reis FS, Stojkovic D, Queiroz MJRP, Vasconcelos MH, Sokovic M (2015) Chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemistry 114:38–55Google Scholar
  16. Ghorbanpour M, Omidvari M, Abbaszadeh-Dahaji P, Omidvar R, Kariman K (2018) Mechanisms underlying the protective effects of beneficial fungi against plant diseases. Biol Control 117:147–157Google Scholar
  17. Gupta VK, Kubicek CP, Berrin JG, Wilson DW, Couturier M, Berlin A, Filho EXF, Ezeji T (2016) Fungal enzymes for bio-products from sustainable and waste biomass. Trends Biochem Sci 41(7):633Google Scholar
  18. Hamberg L, Lemola J, Hantula J (2018) The potential of the decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum in the biocontrol of broadleaved tree species. Fungal Ecol 30:67–75Google Scholar
  19. Hidayat A, Yanto DHY (2018) Biodegradation and metabolic pathway of phenanthrene by a new tropical fungus, Trametes hirsuta D7. JECE.
  20. Ji XL, Zhang WT, Gai YP, Lu BY, Yuan CZ, Liu QX, Mu ZM (2012) Patterns of lignocellulose degradation and secretome analysis of Trametes trogii MT. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 75:55–62Google Scholar
  21. Johansen KS (2016) Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases: the microbial power tool for lignocellulose degradation. Trends Plant Sci 21(11):926Google Scholar
  22. Kolomytseva M, Myasoedova N, Samoilova A, Podieiablonskaia E (2017) Rapid identification of fungal laccases/oxidases with different pH-optimum. Process Biochem 62:174–183Google Scholar
  23. Kumar CMS, Jacob TK, Devasahayam S, Thomas S, Geethu C (2018) Multifarious plant growth promotion by an entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium psalliotae. Microbiol Res J Int 207:153–160Google Scholar
  24. Lee H, Jang Y, Choi YS, Kim MJ, Lee J, Lee H, Hong JH, Lee YM, Kim GH, Kim JJ (2014) Biotechnological procedures to select white rot fungi for the degradation of PAHs. J Microbiol Methods 97:56–62Google Scholar
  25. Li Y, Scott R, Hooper AR, Bartholomeusz GA, Kornienko A, Bills GF (2017) Aspergillus candidus is a newly recognized source of sphaeropsidin A: isolation, semi-synthetic derivatization and anticancer evaluation. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 27:5436–5440Google Scholar
  26. Li SJ, Zhang X, Wang XH, Zhao CQ (2018) Novel natural compounds from endophytic fungi with anticancer activity. Eur J Med Chem 156:316–343Google Scholar
  27. Long J, Gao X, Su M, Li M, Chen D, Zhou S (2018) Performance and mechanism of biosorption of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by non-living Streptomyces roseorubens SY. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 548:125–133Google Scholar
  28. Madhavan A, Pandey A, Sukumaran RK (2017) Expression system for heterologous protein expression in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus unguis. Bioresour Technol 245:1334–1342Google Scholar
  29. Makhuvele R, Ncube I, Rensburg ELJ, Grange DC (2017) Isolation of fungi from dung of wild herbivores for application in bioethanol production. Braz J Microbiol 8:648–655Google Scholar
  30. Mathews SL, Grunden AM, Pawlak J (2016) Degradation of lignocellulose and lignin by Paenibacillus glucanolyticus. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 110:79–86Google Scholar
  31. Mendoza AM, Zaid R, Lawry R, Hermosa R, Monte E, Horwitz BA, Mukherjee P (2018) Molecular dialogues between Trichoderma and roots: role of the fungal secretome. Fungal Biol Rev 32:62–85Google Scholar
  32. Minarni, Artika IM, Julistiono H, Bermawie N, Riyanti EI, Hasim, AEZ H (2017) Anticancer activity test of ethyl acetate extract of endophytic fungi isolated from soursop leaf (Annona muricata L.). Asian Pac J Trop Med 10(6):566–571Google Scholar
  33. Monteiro TSA, Valadares SV, Mello INK, Moreira BC, Kasuya MCM, Araujo JV, Freitas LG (2018) Nematophagous fungi increasing phosphorus uptake and promoting plant growth. Biol Control 123:71–75Google Scholar
  34. Novelli PK, Barros MM, Fleuri LF (2016) Novel inexpensive fungi proteases: production by solid state fermentation and characterization. Food Chem 198:119–124Google Scholar
  35. Nurunnabi TR, Al-Majmaie S, Nakouti I, Nahar L, Rahman SMM, Sohrab MH, Billah MM, Ismail FMD, Sharples GP, Sarker SD (2018) Antimicrobial activity of kojic acid from endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from Sonneratia apetala, a mangrove plant of the Sundarbans. Asian Pac J Trop Med 11(5):350–354Google Scholar
  36. Ogar A, Grandin A, Sjoberg V, Turnau K, Karlsson S (2014) Stabilization of uranium (VI) at low pH by fungal metabolites: applications in environmental biotechnology. APCBEE Procedia 10:142–148Google Scholar
  37. Orlikowska M, Rostro-Alanis MJ, Bujacz A, Hernandez-Luna C, Rubio R, Parra R, Bujacz G (2018) Structural studies of two thermostable laccases from the white-rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus. Int J Biol Macromol 107:1629–1640Google Scholar
  38. Othman AM, Elsayed MA, Elshafei AM, Hassan MM (2018) Purification and biochemical characterization of two isolated laccase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus CU13 and their potency in dye decolorization. Int J Biol Macromol 113:1142–1148Google Scholar
  39. Paramjeet S, Manasa P, Korrapati N (2018) Biofuels: production of fungal-mediated ligninolytic enzymes and the modes of bioprocesses utilizing agro-based residues. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 14:57–71Google Scholar
  40. Pei JJ, Wang ZB, Ma HL, Yan JK (2015) Structural features and antitumor activity of a novel polysaccharide from alkaline extract of Phellinus linteus mycelia. Carbohydr Polym 115:472–477Google Scholar
  41. Pereira GF, Bastiani D, Gabardo S, Squina F, Ayub MAZ (2018) Solid-state cultivation of recombinant Aspergillus nidulans to co-produce xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, and xylooligosaccharides from soybean fibre. ISBAB 15:78–85Google Scholar
  42. Pieterse Z, Aveling TAS, Jacobs A, Cowan DA (2018) Seasonal variability in fungal endophytes from Aizoaceae plants in the Succulent Karoo biodiversity hotspot, South Africa. J Arid Environ.
  43. Przystas W, Zablocka-Godlewska E, Grabinska-Sota E (2018) Efficiency of decolorization of different dyes using fungal biomass immobilized on different solid supports. Braz J Microbiol 49:285–295Google Scholar
  44. Rathore H, Prasad S, Sharma S (2017) Mushroom nutraceuticals for improved nutrition and better human health: a review. Pharma Nutrition 5:35–46Google Scholar
  45. Ribeiro SFL, Garcia ADC, Santos HED, Montoya QV, Rodrigues A, Oliveira JM, Oliveira CM (2018) Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of endophytic fungi from Oryctanthus alveolatus (Kunth) Kuijt (Mistletoe). Afr J Microbiol Res 12(11):263–268Google Scholar
  46. Richardson SN, Nsiama TK, Walker AK, McMullin DR, Miller JD (2015) Antimicrobial dihydrobenzofurans and xanthenes from a foliar endophyte of Pinus strobus. Phytochemistry 117:436–443Google Scholar
  47. Rivera-Hoyos CM, Morales-Alvarez ED, Poutou-Pinales RA, Pedroza-Rodriguez AM, Rodriguez-Vazquez R, Delgado-Boada JM (2013) Fungal laccases. Fungal Biol 27:67–82Google Scholar
  48. Russo ML, Pelizza SA, Vianna MF, Allegrucci N, Cabello MN, Toledo AV, Mourelos C, Scorsetti AC (2018) Effect of endophytic entomopathogenic fungi on soybean Glycine max (L.)Merr. growth and yield. JKSUS.
  49. Sahay H, Yadav AN, Singh AK, Singh S, Kaushik R, Saxena AK (2017) Hot springs of Indian Himalayas: potential sources of microbial diversity and thermostable hydrolytic enzymes. 3 Biotech 7:1–11Google Scholar
  50. Sahmoune MN (2018) Performance of Streptomyces rimosus biomass in biosorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Microchem J 141:87–95Google Scholar
  51. Saiardi A, Azevedo C, Desfougeres C, Portela-Torres P, Wilson MSC (2018) Microbial inositol polyphosphate metabolic pathway as drug development target. Adv Biol Regul 67:74–83Google Scholar
  52. Saito Y, Tsuchida H, Matsumoto T, Makita Y, Kawashima M, Kikuchi J, Matsui M (2018) Screening of fungi for decomposition of lignin-derived products from Japanese cedar. J Biosci Bioeng.
  53. Salihi A, Asoodeh A, Aliabadian M (2017) Production and biochemical characterization of an alkaline protease from Aspergillus oryzae CH93. Int J Biol Macromol 94:827–835Google Scholar
  54. Sarkari P, Marx H, Blumhoff ML, Mattanovich D, Sauer M, Steiger MG (2017) An efficient tool for metabolic pathway construction and gene integration for Aspergillus niger. Bioresour Technol 245:1327–1333Google Scholar
  55. Shehata AN, Abd-El-Aty AA, Darwish DA, Wahab WAA, Mostafa FA (2018) Purification, physicochemical and thermodynamic studies of antifungal chitinase with production of bioactive chitosan-oligosaccharide from newly isolated Aspergillus griseoaurantiacus KX010988. Int J Biol Macromol 107:990–999Google Scholar
  56. Sheng L, Liu C, Tong Q, Ma M (2015) Central metabolic pathways of Aureobasidium pullulans CGMCC1234for pullulan production. Carbohydr Polym 134:333–336Google Scholar
  57. Silva OS, Oliveira RL, Silva JC, Converti A, Porto TA (2018) Thermodynamic investigation of an alkaline protease from Aspergillus tamarii URM4634: a comparative approach between crude extract and purified enzyme. Int J Biol Macromol 109:1039–1044Google Scholar
  58. Small CC, Degenhardt D (2018) Plant growth regulators for enhancing revegetation success in reclamation: a review. Ecol Eng 118:43–51Google Scholar
  59. Souza PM, Werneck G, Aliakbarian B, Siqueira F, Filho EXF, Perego P, Converti A, Magalhaes PO, Junior AP (2017) Production, purification and characterization of an aspartic protease from Aspergillus foetidus. Food Chem Toxicol 109:1103–1110Google Scholar
  60. Storer K, Coggan A, Ineson P, Hodge P (2017) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce nitrous oxide emissions from N2O hotspots. New Phytol.
  61. Supaphon P, Phongpaichit S, Rukachaisirikul V, Sakayaroj J (2013) Antimicrobial potential of endophytic Fungi derived from three seagrass species: Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii. PLoS One 8(8):e72520Google Scholar
  62. Supaphon P, Keawpiboon C, Preedanon S, Phongpaichit S, Rukachaisirikul V (2018) Isolation and antimicrobial activities of fungi derived from Nymphaea lotus and Nymphaea stellate. Mycoscience 59(5):415–523Google Scholar
  63. Tamreihao K, Nimaichand S, Chanu SB, Devi KA, Lynda R, Jeeniita N, Ningthoujam DS (2016) Acidotolerant Streptomyces sp. MBRL 10 from limestone quarry site showing antagonism against fungal pathogens and growth promotion in rice plants. JKSUS 30:143–152Google Scholar
  64. Venkatachalam M, Zelena M, Cacciola F, Ceslova L, Girard-Valenciennes E, Clerc P, Dugo P, Mondellod P, Fouillaud M, Rotondo M, Giuffrida D, Dufosse L (2018a) Partial characterization of the pigments produced by the marine-derived fungus Talaromyces albobiverticillius 30548 towards a new fungal red colorant for the food industry. J Food Compos Anal 67:38–47Google Scholar
  65. Venkatachalam M, Magalon H, Dufosse L, Fouillaud M (2018b) Production of pigments from the tropical marine-derived fungi Talaromyces albobiverticillius: new resources for natural red-colored metabolites. J Food Compos Anal 70:35–48Google Scholar
  66. Vergara C, Araujo KEC, Alves LS, Souza SR, Santos LA, Santa-Catarina C, Silva K, Pereira GMD, Xavier GR, Zilli JE (2018) Contribution of dark septate fungi to the nutrient uptake and growth of rice plants. Braz J Microbiol 49:67–78Google Scholar
  67. Vieira GAL, Magrini MJ, Bonugli-Santos RC, Rodrigues MVN, Sette LD (2018) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation by marine-derived basidiomycetes: optimization of the degradation process. Braz J Microbiol.
  68. Wakai S, Arazoe T, Ogino C, Kondo A (2017) Future insights in fungal metabolic engineering. Bioresour Technol 245:1314–1326Google Scholar
  69. Wang ZG, Bi YL, Jiang B, Zhakypbek Y, Peng SP, Liu WW, Liu H (2016) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance soil carbon sequestration in the coalfields, Northwest China. Sci Rep 6:34336Google Scholar
  70. Wang W, Chen R, Luo Z, Wang W, Chen J (2017a) Antimicrobial activity and molecular docking studies of a novel anthraquinone from a marine derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor. Nat Prod Res 32(5):558–563Google Scholar
  71. Wang N, Chu Y, Wu F, Zhao Z, Xu X (2017b) Decolorization and degradation of Congo red by a newly isolated white rot fungus, Ceriporia lacerata, from decayed mulberry branches. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 117:236–244Google Scholar
  72. Wang SN, Chen QJ, Zhu MJ, Xue FY, Li WC, Zhao TJ, Li GD, Zhang GQ (2018) An extracellular yellow laccase from white rot fungus Trametes sp. F1635 and its mediator systems for dye decolorization. Biochimie 148:46–54Google Scholar
  73. Ward OP (2012) Production of recombinant proteins by filamentous fungi. Biotechnol Adv 30:1119–1139Google Scholar
  74. Wu J, Jin S, Wu S, Chen Y, Chen R (2018) Effect of filamentous fungi fermentation on the extractability and physicochemical properties of β-glucan in oat bran. Food Chem 254:122–128Google Scholar
  75. Yadav AN, Sachan SG, Verma P, Kaushik R, Saxena AK (2016) Cold active hydrolytic enzymes production by psychrotrophic Bacilli isolated from three sub-glacial lakes of NW Indian Himalayas. J Basic Microbiol 56:294–307Google Scholar
  76. Yadav AN, Verma P, Sachan SG, Saxena AK (2017) Biodiversity and biotechnological applications of psychrotrophic microbes isolated from Indian Himalayan regions. EC Microbiol ECO 01:48–54Google Scholar
  77. Yadav AN, Verma P, Kumar V, Sangwan P, Mishra S, Panjiar N, Gupta VK, Saxena AK (2018) Biodiversity of the genus Penicillium in different habitats. In: Gupta VK, Rodriguez-Couto S (eds) New and future developments in microbial biotechnology and bioengineering, Penicillium system properties and applications. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 3–18. Scholar
  78. Yang Y, Bae WY, Nam SJ, Jeong MH, Zhou R, Park SY, Taş I, Hwang YH, Park MS, Chung IJ, Kim KK, Hur JS, Kim H (2018) Acetonic extracts of the endolichenic fungus EL002332 isolated from Endocarpon pusillum exhibits anticancer activity in human gastric cancer cells. Phytomedicine 40:106–115Google Scholar
  79. Zanon MSA, Clemente MP, Chulze SN (2018) Characterization and competitive ability of non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolated from the maize agro-ecosystem in Argentina as potential aflatoxin biocontrol agents. Int J Food Microbiol 277:58–63Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Himani Meena
    • 1
  • Busi Siddhardha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologySchool of Life Sciences, Pondicherry UniversityPuducherryIndia

Personalised recommendations