The Relation Between Levelling, Geodetic and Other Unholonomic Heights

  • Fernando SansòEmail author
  • Mirko Reguzzoni
  • Riccardo Barzaghi
Part of the Springer Geophysics book series (SPRINGERGEOPHYS)


Spirit levelling is a complex geodetic measurement that combines several elementary steps, already defined in Sect. 4.6 (see also Fig. 4.6), each of them providing a step increment on a short baseline; such increments are then added along a levelling line, joining two stations \(\text {P}\) and \(\text {Q}\). In this way, recalling (4.56), we have a measurement related to the extremes \(\text {P}\) and \(\text {Q}\) and to the path connecting them.


  1. Betti B., Carrion D., Sacerdote F., Venuti G. (2016). The observation equation of spirit leveling in Molodensky’s context. In: Sneeuw N., Novàk P., Crespi M., Sansò F. (eds), VIII Hotine-Marussi Symposium on Mathematical Geodesy, International Association of Geodesy Symposia, 142:213–219. Springer, Cham.Google Scholar
  2. Featherstone W.E., Kuhn M. (2006). Height systems and vertical datums: a review in the Australian context. Journal of Spatial Science, 51(1):21–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Filmer M.S., Featherstone W.E., Kuhn M. (2010). The effect of EGM2008-based normal, normal-orthometric and Helmert orthometric height systems on the Australian levelling network. Journal of Geodesy, 84(8):501–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Sjoberg L. (2018). On the topographic bias and density distribution in modelling the geoid and orthometric heights. Journal of Geodetic Science 8:30–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Sansò
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mirko Reguzzoni
    • 1
  • Riccardo Barzaghi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICA)Politecnico di MilanoMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations