Advertisement

Nutrition and Hydration

  • Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Chapter

Abstract

Nutrition and Hydration provides evidence-based information regarding nutrition and hydration for physical sports and their benefits as well as recommendation to prevent nutrition deficits, low performance during the sports exercises and recovery, and health risks.

The amount of food intake throughout the day must provide to athlete’s adequate proportion of macro- and micronutrients according to the timing and exercise type. All athletes should adopt specific nutritional strategies before, during, and after training and competition.

Macronutrients are carbohydrates, protein, and fat which are important for athletes’ nutrition to keep performance up, avoid fatigue and associated injuries, maintain immune function, prevent overtraining, and achieve goals. Vitamins and mineral are micronutrients that are essential for the metabolism and athletes’ performance.

Athletes usually need to hydrate before, during, and after exercise. The main goal of hydration is optimized performance, prevention of metabolic strain, and thermoregulation during exercise.

The aspects related to nutrition and hydration in sports will be discussed for the main categories of sports: endurance and resistance training.

Keywords

Nutrition Hydration Endurance training Resistance training Carbohydrates Protein Fat Vitamins and mineral 

References

  1. 1.
    Nutrition for athletes—a practical guide to eating for health and performance [Internet]. Lausanne: International Olympic Committee; 2016. 37 p. www.olympic.org.
  2. 2.
    Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: nutrition and athletic performance. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(3):501–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cunningham J. A reanalysis of the factors influencing basal metabolic rate in normal adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980;33(11):2372–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Roza A, Shizgal H. The Harris Benedict equation reevaluated: resting energy requirements and the body cell mass. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984;40(1):168–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kreider RB, Wilborn CD, Taylor L, Campbell B, Almada AL, Collins R, et al. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010;7(1):7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bytomski JR. Fueling for performance. Sports Health Multidiscip Approach. 2018;10(1):47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heaton LE, Davis JK, Rawson ES, Nuccio RP, Witard OC, Stein KW, et al. Selected in-season nutritional strategies to enhance recovery for team sport athletes: a practical overview. Sports Med. 2017;47(11):2201–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kerksick CM, Arent S, Schoenfeld BJ, Stout JR, Campbell B, Wilborn CD, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: nutrient timing. J Int Soc Sports Nutr [Internet]. 2017 Dec [cited 2017 Dec 27];14(1). Available from: http://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-017-0189-4.
  9. 9.
    Ivy JL, Katz AL, Cutler CL, Sherman WM, Coyle EF. Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: effect of time of carbohydrate ingestion. J Appl Physiol. 1988;64(4):1480–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Howarth KR, Moreau NA, Phillips SM, Gibala MJ. Coingestion of protein with carbohydrate during recovery from endurance exercise stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2009;106(4):1394–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies; 2005.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020 dietary guidelines for Americans [Internet]. 8th ed. 2015 [cited 2018 Jan 18]. Available from: http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines.
  13. 13.
    Potgieter S. Sport nutrition: a review of the latest guidelines for exercise and sport nutrition from the American College of Sport Nutrition, the International Olympic Committee and the International Society for Sports Nutrition. Afr J Clin Nutr. 2013;26(1):6–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jäger R, Kerksick CM, Campbell BI, Cribb PJ, Wells SD, Skwiat TM, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr [Internet]. 2017 Dec [cited 2018 Jan 2];14(1). Available from: http://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-017-0177-8.
  15. 15.
    Phillips SM, Van Loon LJC. Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to optimum adaptation. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(Suppl 1):S29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McCartney D, Desbrow B, Irwin C. Post-exercise Ingestion of carbohydrate, protein and water: a systematic review and meta-analysis for effects on subsequent athletic performance. Sports Med [Internet]. 2017 Nov 2 [cited 2018 Jan 6]. Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40279-017-0800-5.
  17. 17.
    Rogerson D. Vegan diets: practical advice for athletes and exercisers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr [Internet]. 2017 Dec [cited 2018 Jan 18];14(1). Available from: http://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-017-0192-9.
  18. 18.
    Chidnok W, Fulford J, Bailey SJ, DiMenna FJ, Skiba PF, Vanhatalo A, et al. Muscle metabolic determinants of exercise tolerance following exhaustion: relationship to the “critical power”. J Appl Physiol. 2013;115(2):243–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Akerman AP, Tipton M, Minson CT, Cotter JD. Heat stress and dehydration in adapting for performance: good, bad, both, or neither? Temperature. 2016;3(3):412–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jeukendrup AE. Periodized nutrition for athletes. Sports Med. 2017;47(S1):51–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Martínez-Sanz J, Sospedra I, Ortiz C, Baladía E, Gil-Izquierdo A, Ortiz-Moncada R. Intended or unintended doping? A review of the presence of doping substances in dietary supplements used in sports. Nutrients. 2017;9(10):1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goolsby MA, Boniquit N. Bone health in athletes: the role of exercise, nutrition, and hormones. Sports Health Multidiscip Approach. 2017;9(2):108–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chu A, Holdaway C, Varma T, Petocz P, Samman S. Lower serum zinc concentration despite higher dietary zinc intake in athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2018;48(2):327–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISAKOS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniéla Oliveira Magro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medical SciencesState University of Campinas (Unicamp)CampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations