Physiological Demands in Sports Practice

  • Ana Sousa
  • João Ribeiro
  • Pedro Figueiredo


When a car starts moving, it performs mechanical work that is used to move along a specific road. At that moment, the energy injected into the car, coming from the transformation of chemical energy into mechanical energy via fuel oxidation into the engine, changes rapidly. The human body is an amazing machine whose motion can be compared to a car driven on the road. Whenever we got up from a chair, run to catch the bus, or even participate in any athletic event, the energy demands of our muscles change rapidly. In fact, our energy transfer activity’ systems become higher in order to fulfill the energy requirement, whether to perform a simple task or whether to perform a more complex and energy-demanding one. The predominance of the three energy-supplying processes (ATP-PCr, glycolytic, and oxidative systems) depends on the duration and intensity of the activity to be performed. Therefore, identifying the energy required for this activity, as well as producing a measure that relates to a specific aerobic physiological state (maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold), implies an athlete, or team of athletes, to be tested, in field or laboratory conditions. The energetic profile determination of an athlete has become one of the important things for an effective exercise training prescription, monitoring training adaptations, and subsequently enhancing performance.


Exercise ATP Energy VO2max Lactate threshold 


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Copyright information

© ISAKOS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Sousa
    • 1
    • 2
  • João Ribeiro
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Pedro Figueiredo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Research Centre for Sports, Exercise and Human Development, CIDESDVila RealPortugal
  2. 2.University Institute of Maia, ISMAIMaiaPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Performance OptimizationSporting Clube de Braga, SADBragaPortugal
  4. 4.Portugal Football School, Portuguese Football FederationOeirasPortugal

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