Advertisement

Traumatic Knee Injuries

  • Steffen Sauer
  • Mark ClatworthyEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter explains the most common sports-related knee injuries based on the best available evidence. The content is designed for sports physicians who wish to be equipped with a comprehensible and standardized approach to the assessment and treatment of major topics of knee-related sports traumatology. Each topic entails diagnostic strategies and therapeutic management including conservative and operative treatment algorithms. A standardized structure including clear take-home messages as well as high-quality images helps the reader to easily retrieve information for thorough decision-making.

References

  1. 1.
    Duthon VB. Acute traumatic patellar dislocation. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2015;101:S59–67.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arendt EA, Fithian DC, Cohen E. Current concepts of lateral patella dislocation. Clin Sports Med. 2002;21:499–519.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zaffagnini S, et al. The patellofemoral joint: from dysplasia to dislocation. EFORT Open Rev. 2017;2:204–14.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frosch, S. et al. [The treatment of patellar dislocation: a systematic review]. Z Orthop Unfall. 2011;149:630–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mordecai SC, Al-Hadithy N, Ware HE, Gupte CM. Treatment of meniscal tears: an evidence based approach. World J Orthop. 2014;5:233–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chahla J, Dean CS, Moatshe G, Mitchell JJ, Cram TR, Yacuzzi C, LaPrade RF. Meniscal Ramp Lesions. Orthop J Sports Med. 2016;4(7):232596711665781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ahn JH, Bae TS, Kang K-S, Kang SY, Lee SH. Longitudinal tear of the medial meniscus posterior horn in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee significantly influences anterior stability. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:2187–93.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nikolić DK. Lateral meniscal tears and their evolution in acute injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 1998;6(1):26–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tscholl PM, Duthon VB, Cavalier M, Menetrey J. Current treatment strategy of meniscal lesions in athletes. Rev Med Suisse. 2016;12:1284–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shybut TB, et al. Effect of lateral meniscal root tear on the stability of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43:905–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sihvonen R, et al. Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy versus placebo surgery for a degenerative meniscus tear: a 2-year follow-up of the randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2018;77:188–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thorlund JB, Juhl CB, Roos EM, Lohmander LS. Arthroscopic surgery for degenerative knee: systematic review and meta-analysis of benefits and harms. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49:1229–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Scholten RJ, et al. The accuracy of physical diagnostic tests for assessing meniscal lesions of the knee: a meta-analysis. J Fam Pract. 2001;50:938–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Karachalios T, Hantes M, Zibis AH, Zachos V, Karantanas AH, Malizos KN. Diagnostic accuracy of a new clinical test (the Thessaly Test) for early detection of meniscal tears. J Bone Joint Surg. 87(5):955–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Helmark IC, Neergaard K, Krogsgaard MR. Traumatic knee extension deficit (the locked knee): can MRI reduce the need for arthroscopy? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007;15:863–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barber FA, McGarry JE. Meniscal repair techniques. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2007;15:199–207.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fok AWM, Yau WP. Early results of all-inside meniscal repairs using a pre-loaded suture anchor. Hong Kong Med J. 2013;19:124–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roemer FW, et al. Partial meniscectomy is associated with increased risk of incident radiographic osteoarthritis and worsening cartilage damage in the following year. Eur Radiol. 2017;27:404–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    van Meer BL, et al. Which determinants predict tibiofemoral and patellofemoral osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament injury? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49:975–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bhatia S, LaPrade CM, Ellman MB, LaPrade RF. Meniscal root tears: significance, diagnosis, and treatment. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42:3016–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    LaPrade RF, Matheny LM, Moulton SG, James EW, Dean CS. Posterior meniscal root repairs: outcomes of an anatomic transtibial pull-out technique. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45:884–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    DePhillipo NN, Cinque ME, Kennedy NI, Chahla J, Geeslin AG, Moatshe G, Engebretsen L, LaPrade RF. Inside-out repair of meniscal ramp lesions. Arthrosc Tech. 2017;6(4):e1315–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Herrlin S, Hållander M, Wange P, Weidenhielm L, Werner S. Arthroscopic or conservative treatment of degenerative medial meniscal tears: a prospective randomised trial. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007;15:393–401.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Khan M, Evaniew N, Bedi A, Ayeni OR, Bhandari M. Arthroscopic surgery for degenerative tears of the meniscus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2014;186:1057–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kise NJ, et al. Exercise therapy versus arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for degenerative meniscal tear in middle aged patients: randomised controlled trial with two year follow-up. BMJ. 2016;354:i3740.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ménétrey J, Siegrist O, Fritschy D. Medial meniscectomy in patients over the age of fifty: a six year follow-up study. Swiss Surg. 2002;8:113–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Śmigielski R, Zdanowicz U, Drwięga M, Ciszek B, Ciszkowska-Łysoń B, Siebold R. Ribbon like appearance of the midsubstance fibres of the anterior cruciate ligament close to its femoral insertion site: a cadaveric study including 111 knees. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;23(11):3143–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moulton SG, Steineman BD, Haut Donahue TL, Fontboté CA, Cram TR, LaPrade RF. Direct versus indirect ACL femoral attachment fibres and their implications on ACL graft placement. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017;25(1):165–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Alentorn-Geli E, et al. Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players. Part 1: mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2009;17:705–29.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Koga H, et al. Mechanisms for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: knee joint kinematics in 10 injury situations from female team handball and basketball. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38:2218–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lohmander LS, Englund PM, Dahl LL, Roos EM. The long-term consequence of anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus injuries: osteoarthritis. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:1756–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mihelic R, Jurdana H, Jotanovic Z, Madjarevic T, Tudor A. Long-term results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a comparison with non-operative treatment with a follow-up of 17–20 years. Int Orthop. 2011;35:1093–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Carey JL, Dunn WR, Dahm DL, Zeger SL, Spindler KP. A systematic review of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autograft compared with allograft. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009;91:2242–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cavaignac E, et al. Is quadriceps tendon autograft a better choice than hamstring autograft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? A comparative study with a mean follow-up of 3.6 years. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45:1326–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dopirak RM, Adamany DC, Steensen RN. A comparison of autogenous patellar tendon and hamstring tendon grafts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Orthopedics. 2004;27:837–42; quiz 843–844.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Foster TE, Wolfe BL, Ryan S, Silvestri L, Kaye EK. Does the graft source really matter in the outcome of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? An evaluation of autograft versus allograft reconstruction results: a systematic review. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38:189–99.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Goldblatt JP, Fitzsimmons SE, Balk E, Richmond JC. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: meta-analysis of patellar tendon versus hamstring tendon autograft. Art Ther. 2005;21:791–803.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hu J, Qu J, Xu D, Zhou J, Lu H. Allograft versus autograft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: an up-to-date meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int Orthop. 2013;37:311–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Laoruengthana A, Pattayakorn S, Chotanaputhi T, Kosiyatrakul A. Clinical comparison between six-strand hamstring tendon and patellar tendon autograft in arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. J Med Assoc Thai. 2009;92:491–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Xie X, et al. A meta-analysis of bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft versus four-strand hamstring tendon autograft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee. 2015;22:100–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Li X, Xu C, Song J, Jiang N, Yu B. Single-bundle versus double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: an up-to-date meta-analysis. Int Orthop. 2013;37:213–26.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Siebold R, Branch TP, Freedberg HI, Jacobs CA. A matched pairs comparison of single- versus double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions, clinical results and manual laxity testing. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19(Suppl 1):S4–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kondo E, Yasuda K, Azuma H, Tanabe Y, Yagi T. Prospective clinical comparisons of anatomic double-bundle versus single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction procedures in 328 consecutive patients. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:1675–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Murawski CD, van Eck CF, Irrgang JJ, Tashman S, Fu FH. Operative treatment of primary anterior cruciate ligament rupture in adults. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014;96:685–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brophy RH, et al. Changes in the length of virtual anterior cruciate ligament fibers during stability testing: a comparison of conventional single-bundle reconstruction and native anterior cruciate ligament. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:2196–203.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sauer S, English R, Clatworthy M. The ratio of tibial slope and meniscal bone angle for the prediction of ACL reconstruction failure risk. Surg J. 2018;4(3):e152–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Clatworthy M, Sauer S, Roberts T. Transportal central femoral tunnel placement has a significantly higher revision rate than transtibial AM femoral tunnel placement in hamstring ACL reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-018-5036-x.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Guenther D, et al. The role of extra-articular tenodesis in combined ACL and anterolateral capsular injury. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017;99:1654–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ramesh R, Von Arx O, Azzopardi T, Schranz PJ. The risk of anterior cruciate ligament rupture with generalised joint laxity. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87:800–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Slette EL, et al. Biomechanical results of lateral extra-articular Tenodesis procedures of the knee: a systematic review. Art Ther. 2016;32:2592–611.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Weber AE, et al. Lateral augmentation procedures in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: anatomic, biomechanical, imaging, and clinical evidence. Am J Sports Med 2018:363546517751140.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546517751140.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mountcastle SB, Posner M, Kragh JF, Taylor DC. Gender differences in anterior cruciate ligament injury vary with activity: epidemiology of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in a young, athletic population. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:1635–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Prodromos CC, Han Y, Rogowski J, Joyce B, Shi K. A meta-analysis of the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears as a function of gender, sport, and a knee injury-reduction regimen. Art Ther. 2007;23:1320–1325.e6.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Toth AP, Cordasco FA. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the female athlete. J Gend Specif Med. 2001;4:25–34.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hewett TE, Myer GD, Zazulak BT. Hamstrings to quadriceps peak torque ratios diverge between sexes with increasing isokinetic angular velocity. J Sci Med Sport. 2008;11:452–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hewett TE, Zazulak BT, Myer GD. Effects of the menstrual cycle on anterior cruciate ligament injury risk: a systematic review. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:659–68.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    LaPrade RF, Burnett QM. Femoral intercondylar notch stenosis and correlation to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. A prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 1994;22:198–202; discussion 203.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shelbourne KD, Davis TJ, Klootwyk TE. The relationship between intercondylar notch width of the femur and the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears. A prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26:402–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wordeman SC, Quatman CE, Kaeding CC, Hewett TE. In vivo evidence for tibial plateau slope as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:1673–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sauer S, Clatworthy M. The effect of medial tibial slope on anterior tibial translation and short-term ACL reconstruction outcome. Surg J. 2018;4(3):e160–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Benjaminse A, Gokeler A, van der Schans CP. Clinical diagnosis of an anterior cruciate ligament rupture: a meta-analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006;36:267–88.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    van Eck CF, van den Bekerom MPJ, Fu FH, Poolman RW, Kerkhoffs GMMJ. Methods to diagnose acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture: a meta-analysis of physical examinations with and without anaesthesia. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21:1895–903.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    König DP, Rütt J, Kumm D, Breidenbach E. Diagnosis of anterior knee instability. Comparison between the Lachman test, the KT-1000 arthrometer and the ultrasound Lachman test. Unfallchirurg. 1998;101:209–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lane CG, Warren R, Pearle AD. The pivot shift. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008;16:679–88.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Goldman AB, Pavlov H, Rubenstein D. The Segond fracture of the proximal tibia: a small avulsion that reflects major ligamentous damage. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988;151:1163–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lee CH, et al. Osseous injury associated with ligamentous tear of the knee. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2016;67:379–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lorbach O, et al. The influence of the medial meniscus in different conditions on anterior tibial translation in the anterior cruciate deficient knee. Int Orthop. 2015;39:681–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Monk AP, et al. Surgical versus conservative interventions for treating anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;4:CD011166.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Duquin TR, Wind WM, Fineberg MS, Smolinski RJ, Buyea CM. Current trends in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Knee Surg. 2009;22:7–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mayr HO, Weig TG, Plitz W. Arthrofibrosis following ACL reconstruction—reasons and outcome. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2004;124:518–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ardern CL, Taylor NF, Feller JA, Webster KE. Fifty-five per cent return to competitive sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis including aspects of physical functioning and contextual factors. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48:1543–52.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Czuppon S, Racette BA, Klein SE, Harris-Hayes M. Variables associated with return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48:356–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Legnani C, Terzaghi C, Borgo E, Ventura A. Management of anterior cruciate ligament rupture in patients aged 40 years and older. J Orthop Traumatol. 2011;12:177–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sri-Ram K, Salmon LJ, Pinczewski LA, Roe JP. The incidence of secondary pathology after anterior cruciate ligament rupture in 5086 patients requiring ligament reconstruction. Bone Joint J. 2013;95-B:59–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Barenius B, et al. Increased risk of osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a 14-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42:1049–57.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Frobell RB, et al. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear: five year outcome of randomised trial. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49:700.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gillquist J, Messner K. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and the long-term incidence of gonarthrosis. Sports Med. 1999;27:143–56.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wind WM, Bergfeld JA, Parker RD. Evaluation and treatment of posterior cruciate ligament injuries: revisited. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:1765–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Agolley D, Gabr A, Benjamin-Laing H, Haddad FS. Successful return to sports in athletes following non-operative management of acute isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries: medium-term follow-up. Bone Joint J. 2017;99-B:774–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Parolie JM, Bergfeld JA. Long-term results of nonoperative treatment of isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries in the athlete. Am J Sports Med. 1986;14:35–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Patel DV, Allen AA, Warren RF, Wickiewicz TL, Simonian PT. The nonoperative treatment of acute, isolated (partial or complete) posterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees: an intermediate-term follow-up study. HSS J. 2007;3:137–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Woodmass JM, et al. Poly-traumatic multi-ligament knee injuries: is the knee the limiting factor? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2018;26(9):2865–71.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-017-4784-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Logan M, Williams A, Lavelle J, Gedroyc W, Freeman M. The effect of posterior cruciate ligament deficiency on knee kinematics. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:1915–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Allen CR, Kaplan LD, Fluhme DJ, Harner CD. Posterior cruciate ligament injuries. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2002;14:142–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sekiya JK, Whiddon DR, Zehms CT, Miller MD. A clinically relevant assessment of posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner injuries. Evaluation of isolated and combined deficiency. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:1621–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rosenthal MD, Rainey CE, Tognoni A, Worms R. Evaluation and management of posterior cruciate ligament injuries. Phys Ther Sport. 2012;13:196–208.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jansson KS, Costello KE, O’Brien L, Wijdicks CA, Laprade RF. A historical perspective of PCL bracing. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21:1064–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Fowler PJ, Messieh SS. Isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 1987;15:553–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bedi A, Musahl V, Cowan JB. Management of posterior cruciate ligament injuries: an evidence-based review. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2016;24:277–89.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lopez-Vidriero E, Simon DA, Johnson DH. Initial evaluation of posterior cruciate ligament injuries: history, physical examination, imaging studies, surgical and nonsurgical indications. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2010;18:230–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hammoud S, Reinhardt KR, Marx RG. Outcomes of posterior cruciate ligament treatment: a review of the evidence. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2010;18:280–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pierce CM, O’Brien L, Griffin LW, Laprade RF. Posterior cruciate ligament tears: functional and postoperative rehabilitation. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21:1071–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Voos JE, Mauro CS, Wente T, Warren RF, Wickiewicz TL. Posterior cruciate ligament: anatomy, biomechanics, and outcomes. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:222–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Harner CD, Höher J. Evaluation and treatment of posterior cruciate ligament injuries. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26:471–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Craft JA, Kurzweil PR. Physical examination and imaging of medial collateral ligament and posteromedial corner of the knee. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2015;23:e1–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Duffy PS, Miyamoto RG. Management of medial collateral ligament injuries in the knee: an update and review. Phys Sportsmed. 2010;38:48–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Schein A, et al. Structure and function, injury, pathology, and treatment of the medial collateral ligament of the knee. Emerg Radiol. 2012;19:489–98.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lundberg M, Messner K. Long-term prognosis of isolated partial medial collateral ligament ruptures. A ten-year clinical and radiographic evaluation of a prospectively observed group of patients. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24:160–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lundberg M, Messner K. Ten-year prognosis of isolated and combined medial collateral ligament ruptures. A matched comparison in 40 patients using clinical and radiographic evaluations. Am J Sports Med. 1997;25:2–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Warren LF, Marshall JL. The supporting structures and layers on the medial side of the knee: an anatomical analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1979;61:56–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Narvani A, Mahmud T, Lavelle J, Williams A. Injury to the proximal deep medial collateral ligament: a problematical subgroup of injuries. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010;92:949–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fanelli GC, Harris JD. Surgical treatment of acute medial collateral ligament and posteromedial corner injuries of the knee. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2006;14:78–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Menzer H, Treme G, Wascher D. Surgical treatment of medial instability of the knee. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2015;23:77–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Smyth MP, Koh JL. A review of surgical and nonsurgical outcomes of medial knee injuries. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2015;23:e15–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Stannard JP. Medial and posteromedial instability of the knee: evaluation, treatment, and results. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2010;18:263–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wang JC, Shapiro MS. Pellegrini-Stieda syndrome. Am J Orthop. 1995;24:493–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kurzweil PR, Kelley ST. Physical examination and imaging of the medial collateral ligament and posteromedial corner of the knee. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2006;14:67–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Laprade RF, Bernhardson AS, Griffith CJ, Macalena JA, Wijdicks CA. Correlation of valgus stress radiographs with medial knee ligament injuries: an in vitro biomechanical study. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38:330–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bollier M, Smith PA. Anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament injuries. J Knee Surg. 2014;27:359–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jiang KN, West RV. Management of chronic combined ACL medial posteromedial instability of the knee. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2015;23:85–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Blaha JD, Mancinelli CA, Simons WH, Kish VL, Thyagarajan G. Kinematics of the human knee using an open chain cadaver model. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 410:25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lunden JB, Bzdusek PJ, Monson JK, Malcomson KW, Laprade RF. Current concepts in the recognition and treatment of posterolateral corner injuries of the knee. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010;40:502–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ranawat A, Baker CL, Henry S, Harner CD. Posterolateral corner injury of the knee: evaluation and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008;16:506–18.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Malone AA, Dowd GSE, Saifuddin A. Injuries of the posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner of the knee. Injury. 2006;37:485–501.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Davies H, Unwin A, Aichroth P. The posterolateral corner of the knee. Anatomy, biomechanics and management of injuries. Injury. 2004;35:68–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Frank JB, Youm T, Meislin RJ, Rokito AS. Posterolateral corner injuries of the knee. Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis. 2007;65:106–14.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Helgeson MD, Lehman RA, Murphy KP. Initial evaluation of the acute and chronic multiple ligament injured knee. J Knee Surg. 2005;18:213–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tay AKL, MacDonald PB. Complications associated with treatment of multiple ligament injured (dislocated) knee. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2011;19:153–61.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Peskun CJ, et al. Diagnosis and management of knee dislocations. Phys Sportsmed. 2010;38:101–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Seroyer ST, Musahl V, Harner CD. Management of the acute knee dislocation: the Pittsburgh experience. Injury. 2008;39:710–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Johnson ME, Foster L, DeLee JC. Neurologic and vascular injuries associated with knee ligament injuries. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:2448–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kim BS, Kim YW, Song EK, Seon JK, Do Kang K, Kim HN. Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture in a patient with chronic renal failure. Knee Surg Relat Res. 2012;24(1):56–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Omar M, Haas P, Ettinger M, Krettek C, Petri M. Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture following long-term low-dose nasal corticosteroid application. Case Rep Orthop. 2013;2013:1–5.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hockings M, Cameron JC. Patella baja following chronic quadriceps tendon rupture. Knee. 2004;11(2):95–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hanson CA, Weinhold PS, Afshari HM, Dahners LE. The effect of analgesic agents on the healing rat medial collateral ligament. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33:674–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Warden SJ, et al. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerates and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug delays knee ligament healing. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:1094–102.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISAKOS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aarhus University Hospital / Aleris Hamlet HospitalAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.ACL Study GroupAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.ISAKOS Knee Sports and Preservation Committee, ISAKOS Arthroscopy CommitteeSan RamonUSA
  4. 4.Herodicus SocietyOpelousasUSA

Personalised recommendations