Shoulder: The Thrower’s Shoulder

  • Lukas N. Muench
  • Andreas B. ImhoffEmail author
  • Sebastian Siebenlist


The specific motion pattern in overhead and throwing sports results in high stress to the athlete’s shoulder and therefore shows a higher incidence of long-term overload damage. In combination with a repetitive distention of the anterior capsule, the shortening of the dorsal capsular structures leads to a decentralization and posterosuperior translation of the humeral head. Due to the contact of the articular-sided insertion of supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon and the posterosuperior glenoid rim, a PSI develops. Finally, rotator cuff tears as well as lesions of the biceps anchor complex and pulley system occur. Based on clinical examination and imaging, the five-point check for the athlete’s shoulder was developed, including joint capsule, scapula, joint stability, rotator cuff and biceps tendon complex. Conservative therapy is based on a graded rehabilitation programme including training of the complete kinetic chain, joint mobility, strength, endurance and neuromuscular control. A GIRD should be addressed by stretching, whereas a scapula dyskinesia requires intensive strengthening of the periscapular muscles. Surgical treatment includes SLAP repair, subpectoral biceps tenodesis or refixation of rotator cuff tears to the original footprint.


Athletes’ shoulder Throwing athletes Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit Scapular dyskinesis Rotator cuff tear Posterosuperior impingement Subpectoral biceps tenodesis 


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Copyright information

© ISAKOS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lukas N. Muench
    • 1
  • Andreas B. Imhoff
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sebastian Siebenlist
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic Sports MedicineTechnical University of MunichMunichGermany

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