Advertisement

Sequestration of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater Using Composite Ion Exchangers

  • Ravichandran Rathna
  • Sunita VarjaniEmail author
  • Ekambaram NakkeeranEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The transition from agrarian to an industrial society has witnessed several environmental concerns globally. In recent years, contamination of water bodies with refractory contaminants discharged from industrial wastewater significantly interrupted the ecosystems. The most important pollutants in surface and groundwater are arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc; the recalcitrant pollutant and bioaccumulate in the ecosystems as metal–organic complexes. The conventional techniques used for the removal of heavy metals are chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation, coagulation, evaporation, ion exchange, membrane separation, reverse osmosis, electrolytic and adsorption. However, composite ion exchangers have proven to be versatile and efficient for removing heavy metals from contaminated water. This chapter focuses on various materials (inorganic to nanocomposite) recently developed for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater, mechanisms and treatment performance.

Keywords

Bioaccumulation Composite ion exchangers Heavy metals Mechanism Sequestration 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors thank Prof. M. Sivanandham, Secretary, SVEHT and SVCE for their support and encouragement.

References

  1. 1.
    Williams E (2011) Environmental effects of information and communications technologies. Nature 479(7373):354–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shankar BS, Usha HS (2007) Environmental degradation due to industrialization—a case study of Whitefield Industrial Area, Bangalore, India. Environ Eng Sci 24(9):1338–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Varjani SJ, Rana DP, Jain AK, Bateja S, Upasani VN (2015) Synergistic ex-situ biodegradation of crude oil by halotolerant bacterial consortium of indigenous strains isolated from on shore sites of Gujarat, India. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 103:116–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Varjani SJ (2017) Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Bioresour Technol 223:277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Varjani SJ, Upasani VN (2017) A new look on factors affecting microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 120:71–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Varjani SJ, Gnansounou E, Pandey A (2017) Comprehensive review on toxicity of persistent organic pollutants from petroleum refinery waste and their degradation by microorganisms. Chemosphere 188:280–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tchounwou PB, Yedjou CG, Patlolla AK, Sutton DJ (2012) Heavy metal toxicity and the environment. In: Luch A (ed) Molecular, clinical and environmental toxicology, experientia supplementum, vol 101. Springer, Basel, pp 133–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marg BZ (2011) Hazardous metals and minerals pollution in India: sources, toxicity and management. A position paper. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, 2011. Last Accessed: 27 April 2017Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pandey J, Singh R (2017) Heavy metals in sediments of Ganga River: up-and downstream urban influences. Appl Water Sci 7(4):1669–1678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Raju KV, Somashekar RK, Prakash KL (2012) Heavy metal status of sediment in river Cauvery, Karnataka. Environ Monit Assess 184(1):361–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hussain J, Husain I, Arif M, Gupta N (2017) Studies on heavy metal contamination in Godavari river basin. Appl Water Sci. 7(8):4539–4548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shankar S, Shanker U, Shikha (2014) Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a review of sources, prevalence, health risks, and strategies for mitigation. Sci World J 2014:304524.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/304524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    EPA, US (2001) National primary drinking water regulations: arsenic and clarifications to compliance and new source contaminants monitoring. Federal Register 66(14):69–76. Available at https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2001/01/22/01-1668/national-primary-drinking-water-regulations-arsenic-and-clarifications-to-compliance-and-new-source. Last Accessed 27 April 2017
  14. 14.
    Ravenscroft P, Brammer H, Richards K (2009) Arsenic pollution: a global synthesis, vol 28. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) (2013) Arsenic toxicity. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA, USA. Available at https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/arsenic/docs/arsenic.pdf. Last Accessed 27 April 2017
  16. 16.
    ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) (2011) Case studies in environmental medicine (CSEM), cadmium toxicity. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA, USA. Available at https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/cadmium/docs/cadmium.pdf. Last Accessed 27 April 2017
  17. 17.
    Mohan Kumar K, Hariharan V, Rao NP (2016) Heavy metal contamination in groundwater around industrial estate vs. residential areas in Coimbatore, India. J Clin Diagn Res 10(4): BC05–BC07Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gotteland M, Araya M, Pizarro F, Olivares M (2001) Effect of acute copper exposure on gastrointestinal permeability in healthy volunteers. Dig Dis Sci 46(9):1909–1914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ye BJ, Kim BG, Jeon MJ, Kim SY, Kim HC, Jang TW, Chae HJ, Choi WJ, Ha MN, Hong YS (2016) Evaluation of mercury exposure level, clinical diagnosis and treatment for mercury intoxication. Ann Occup Environ Med 28:5.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40557-015-0086-8
  20. 20.
    Rathor G, Chopra N, Adhikari T (2017) Remediation of nickel ion from soil and water using nano particles of zero-valent iron (nZVI). Orient J Chem 33(2):1025–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nriagu J (2017) Zinc toxicity in humans. School of Public Health, University of MichiganGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Varjani S, Agarwal AK, Gnansounou E, Gurunathan B (eds) (2018) Bioremediation: applications for environmental protection and management. Springer Nature, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abdel-Raouf MS, Abdul-Raheim ARM (2017) Removal of heavy metals from industrial waste water by biomass-based materials: a review. J Pollut Eff Contr 5:180.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2375-4397.1000180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kurniawan TA, Chan GY, Lo WH, Babel S (2006) Physico-chemical treatment techniques for wastewater laden with heavy metals. Chem Eng J 118(1–2):83–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Varjani SJ, Gnansounou E (2017) Microbial dynamics in petroleum oilfields and their relationship with physiological properties of petroleum oil reservoirs. Bioresour Technol 245:1258–1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Varjani SJ (2017) Remediation processes for petroleum oil polluted soil. Indian J Biotechnol 16:157–163Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jakob A, Stucki S, Kuhn P (1995) Evaporation of heavy metals during the heat treatment of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash. Environ Sci Technol 29(9):2429–2436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barakat MA (2011) New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Arab J Chem 4(4):361–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kang SY, Lee JU, Moon SH, Kim KW (2004) Competitive adsorption characteristics of Co2+, Ni2+, and Cr3+ by IRN-77 cation exchange resin in synthesized wastewater. Chemosphere 56(2):141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jha B, Singh DN (2016) Basics of zeolites. In: Fly ash zeolites. Springer, Singapore, pp 5–31Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stylianou MA, Hadjiconstantinou MP, Inglezakis VJ, Moustakas KG, Loizidou MD (2007) Use of natural clinoptilolite for the removal of lead, copper and zinc in fixed bed column. J Hazard Mater 143(1–2):575–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Malamis S, Katsou E (2013) A review on zinc and nickel adsorption on natural and modified zeolite, bentonite and vermiculite: examination of process parameters, kinetics and isotherms. J Hazard Mater 252–253:428–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dennis R (2006) Coal industry turns to ion exchange technology for wastewater minimization. Industrial WaterWorld. PennWell Corporation, Tulsa, OK. Available at http://www.waterworld.com/articles/iww/print/volume-6/issue-5/columns/product-focus/coal-industry-turns-to-ion-exchange-technology-for-wastewater-minimization.html. Last Accessed: 27 April 2017
  34. 34.
    Sungur S, Babaoğlu S (2005) Synthesis of a new cellulose ion exchanger and use for the separation of heavy metals in aqueous solutions. Sep Sci Technol 40(10):2067–2078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chutia P, Kato S, Kojima T, Satokawa S (2009) Arsenic adsorption from aqueous solution on synthetic zeolites. J Hazard Mater 162(1):440–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Clearfield A (2000) Inorganic ion exchangers, past, present, and future. Solvent Extr Ion Exch 18(4):655–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nabi SA, Ganai SA, Shalla AH (2008) New organic-inorganic type acrylamide aluminumtungstate: preparation, characterization and analytical applications as a cation exchange material. Sep Sci Technol 43(14):3695–3711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nabi SA, Ganai SA, Khan AM (2008) Effect of surfactants and temperature on adsorption behavior of metal ions on organic–inorganic hybrid exchanger, acrylamide aluminum tungstate. J Surfactants Deterg 11(3):207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nabi SA, Ganai SA, Naushad M (2008) A New Pb2+ ion-selective hybrid cation-exchanger-EDTA-zirconium iodate: Synthesis, characterization and analytical applications. Adsorpt Sci Technol 26(6):463–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nabi SA, Bushra R, Al-Othman ZA, Naushad M (2011) Synthesis, characterization, and analytical applications of a new composite cation exchange material acetonitrile stannic (IV) selenite: adsorption behavior of toxic metal ions in nonionic surfactant medium. Sep Sci Technol 46(5):847–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mohammad A, Amin A, Naushad M, Eldesoky GE (2012) Forward ion-exchange kinetics of heavy metal ions on the surface of carboxymethyl cellulose Sn (IV) phosphate composite nano-rod-like cation exchanger. J Therm Anal Calorim 110(2):715–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Viswanathan N, Meenakshi S (2010) Development of chitosan supported zirconium (IV) tungstophosphate composite for fluoride removal. J Hazard Mater 176(1–3):459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Khan AA, Akhtar T (2009) Synthesis, characterization and ion-exchange properties of a fibrous type ‘polymeric-inorganic’composite cation-exchanger Nylon-6, 6 Sn (IV) phosphate: its application in making Hg (II) selective membrane electrode. Electrochim Acta 54(12):3320–3329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Islam M, Patel R (2008) Polyacrylamide thorium (IV) phosphate as an important lead selective fibrous ion exchanger: synthesis, characterization and removal study. J Hazard Mater 156(1–3):509–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Iqbal N, Mobin M, Rafiquee MZA, Al-Lohedan HA (2012) Characterization and adsorption behavior of newly synthesized sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate–cerium (IV) phosphate (AOT–CeP) cation exchanger. Chem Eng Res Des 90(12):2364–2371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    El-Azony KM, Aydia MI, El-Mohty AA (2011) Separation of Cr (III) from Cr (VI) by Triton X-100 cerium (IV) phosphate as a surface active ion exchanger. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 289(2):381–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Varshney KG, Rafiquee MZA, Somya A (2007) Synthesis, characterization and adsorption behaviour of TX-100 based Sn (IV) phosphate, a new hybrid ion exchanger. J Therm Anal Calorim 90(3):663–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rathore BS, Sharma G, Pathania D, Gupta VK (2014) Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of cellulose acetate–tin (IV) phosphate nanocomposite. Carbohydr Polym 103:221–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Khan AA, Akhtar T (2012) Cation-exchange kinetic studies on poly-o-toluidine Ce (IV) phosphate: a nano-composite and electrical conducting material. J Mater Sci 47(7):3241–3247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Khan AA, Habiba U, Khan A (2009) Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic nanocomposite poly-o-anisidine Sn (IV) arsenophosphate: its analytical applications as Pb (II) ion-selective membrane electrode. Int J Anal Chem 2009:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Khan AA, Habiba U, Shaheen S, Khalid M (2013) Ion-exchange and humidity sensing properties of poly-o-anisidine sn (IV) arsenophosphate nano-composite cation-exchanger. J Environ Chem Eng 1(3):310–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gupta VK, Agarwal S, Pathania D, Kothiyal NC, Sharma G (2013) Use of pectin-thorium (IV) tungstomolybdate nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. Carbohydr Polym 96(1):277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zagorodni AA (2006) Ion exchange materials: properties and applications. Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Xu T (2015) Regeneration of the ion-exchange resin. Encycl Membranes 1–3Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologySri Venkateswara College of Engineering (Autonomous)Sriperumbudur TkIndia
  2. 2.Gujarat Pollution Control BoardGandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations