Advertisement

Four Paradigms

  • Kavous Ardalan
Chapter

Abstract

Social theory can usefully be conceived in terms of four key paradigms: functionalist, interpretive, radical humanist, and radical structuralist. The four paradigms are founded upon different assumptions about the nature of social science and the nature of society. Each generates theories, concepts, and analytical tools which are different from those of other paradigms.

References

  1. Althusser, L. 1969. For Marx. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.Google Scholar
  2. Althusser, L. 1971. Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. London, England: New Left Books.Google Scholar
  3. Althusser, L., and E. Balibar. 1970. Reading Capital. London, England: New Left Books.Google Scholar
  4. Berkeley, G. 1962. The Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. London, England: Collins.Google Scholar
  5. Blau, P.M. 1955. The Dynamics of Bureaucracy. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  6. Blau, P.M. 1964. Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York, NY, USA: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Bookchin, Murray. 1974. Post-Scarcity Anarchism. London, England: Wildwood House.Google Scholar
  8. Buckley, William. 1967. Sociology and Modern Systems Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  9. Bukharin, N. 1965. Historical Materialism: A System of Sociology. New York, NY, USA: Russell and Russell.Google Scholar
  10. Burrell, Gibson, and Gareth Morgan. 1979. Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis. Hants, England: Gower Publishing Company Limited.Google Scholar
  11. Colletti, L. 1972. From Rousseau to Lenin. London, England: New Left Books.Google Scholar
  12. Colletti, L. 1974. A Political and Philosophical Interview. New Left Review 86: 3–28.Google Scholar
  13. Colletti, L. 1975. Marxism and the Dialectics. New Left Review 93: 3–29.Google Scholar
  14. Comte, Auguste. 1953. The Positivist Philosophy, vol. I. London, England: Chapman.Google Scholar
  15. Dahrendorf, R. 1959. Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. London, England: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  16. Dilthey, Wilhelm. 1976. Selected Writings, ed. H.P. Rickman. London, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Durkheim, Emile. 1938. The Rules of Sociological Method. Glencoe, IL, USA: Free Press.Google Scholar
  18. Durkheim, Emile. 1947. The Division of Labour in Society. Glencoe, IL, USA: Free Press.Google Scholar
  19. Fichte, J.F. 1970. Science of Knowledge, ed. P. Heath and J. Lachs. New York, NY, USA: Century Philosophy Sourcebooks.Google Scholar
  20. Gadamer, H.G. 1965. Wahrheit und Method. Tubingen, Germany: J.C.B. Mohr.Google Scholar
  21. Garfinkel, Harold. 1967. Studies in Ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  22. Goldmann, Lucien. 1969. The Human Sciences and Philosophy. London, England: Cape.Google Scholar
  23. Gouldner, Alvin W. 1954a. Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy. Glencoe, IL, USA: Free Press.Google Scholar
  24. Gouldner, Alvin W. 1954b. Wildcat Strike. New York, NY, USA: Antioch Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gouldner, Alvin W. 1970. The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology. London, England: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  26. Gouldner, Alvin W. 1973. For Sociology. Harmondsworth, England: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  27. Gouldner, Alvin W. 1976. The Dialectic of Ideology and Technology. New York, NY, USA: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gramsci, Antonio. 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci, ed. Quinton Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell-Smith. London, England: Lawrence and Wishart.Google Scholar
  29. Habermas, Jurgen. 1970a. On Systematically Distorted Communications. Inquiry 13: 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Habermas, Jurgen. 1970b. Towards a Theory of Communicative Competence. Inquiry 13: 360–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Habermas, Jurgen. 1971. Toward a Rational Society. London, England: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  32. Habermas, Jurgen. 1972. Knowledge and Human Interests. London, England: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  33. Habermas, Jurgen. 1974. Theory and Practice. London, England: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  34. Habermas, Jurgen. 1976. Legitimation Crisis. London, England: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  35. Hegel, G. 1931. The Phenomenology of Mind. London, England: George Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  36. Horkheimer, M. 1972. Critical Theory: Selected Essays. New York, NY, USA: Herder.Google Scholar
  37. Husserl, Edmund. 1929. Entry on ‘Phenomenology’. In Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th ed.Google Scholar
  38. James, William. 1890. Principles of Psychology. London, England: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  39. Lukacs, Georg. 1971. History and Class Consciousness. London, England: Merlin.Google Scholar
  40. Marcuse, H. 1954. Reason and Revolution. New York, NY, USA: Humanities Press.Google Scholar
  41. Marcuse, H. 1964. One-Dimensional Man. London, England: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  42. Marcuse, H. 1966. Eros and Civilisation. Boston, MA, USA: Beason.Google Scholar
  43. Marcuse, H. 1968. Negations: Essays in Critical Theory. London, England: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  44. Marx, Karl. 1973. Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.Google Scholar
  45. Marx, Karl. 1975. Early Writings. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.Google Scholar
  46. Marx, Karl. 1976. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, vol. I–III. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.Google Scholar
  47. Marx, Karl, and Fredrick Engels. 1965. The German Ideology. London, England: Lawrence and Wishart.Google Scholar
  48. Marx, Karl, and Fredrick Engels. 1968. Selected Works. London, England: Lawrence and Wishart Ltd.Google Scholar
  49. Mead, George Herbert. 1932a. Movements of Thought in the Nineteenth Century, ed. M.N. Moore. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  50. Mead, George Herbert. 1932b. The Philosophy of the Present, ed. A.E. Murphy. Chicago, IL, USA: Open Court Publishing.Google Scholar
  51. Mead, George Herbert. 1934. Mind, Self and Society, ed. Charles Morris. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  52. Mead, George Herbert. 1938. The Philosophy of the Act, ed. Charles Morris. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  53. Merton, Robert K. 1968. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York, NY, USA: Free Press.Google Scholar
  54. Meszaros, I. 1970. Marx’s Theory of Alienation. London, England: Merlin.Google Scholar
  55. Meszaros, I. 1971. Aspects of History and Class Consciousness. London, England: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  56. Morgan, Gareth (ed.). 1983. Beyond Method: Strategies for Social Research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  57. Pareto, Vilfredo. 1935. The Mind and Society, 4 vols. New York, NY, USA: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  58. Plekhanov, G. 1974. Selected Philosophical Works, vol. I. Moscow, Russia: Progress.Google Scholar
  59. Rex, J. 1961. Key Problems in Sociological Theory. London, England: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  60. Rex, J. 1974. Approaches to Sociology. London, England: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  61. Sartre, Jean-Paul. 1966. Being and Nothingness. New York, NY, USA: Washington Square Press.Google Scholar
  62. Sartre, Jean-Paul. 1974. Between Existentialism and Marxism. London, England: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  63. Sartre, Jean-Paul. 1976. Critique of Dialectical Reason, vol. I. London, England: New Left Books.Google Scholar
  64. Schutz, Alfred. 1964. Collected Papers II: Studies in Social Theory. The Hague, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schutz, Alfred. 1966. Collected Papers III: Studies in Phenomenological Philosophy. The Hague, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  66. Schutz, Alfred. 1967. Collected Papers I: The Problem of Social Reality, 2nd ed. The Hague, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  67. Simmel, Georg. 1936. The Metropolis and Mental Life. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  68. Simmel, Georg. 1955. Conflict and the Web of Group Affiliations. Glencoe, IL, USA: Free Press.Google Scholar
  69. Skinner, B.F. 1953. Science and Human Behaviour. New York, NY, USA: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  70. Skinner, B.F. 1957. Verbal Behavior. New York, NY, USA: Appleton-Century-Crofts.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Skinner, B.F. 1972. Beyond Freedom and Dignity. New York, NY, USA: Alfred Knopf.Google Scholar
  72. Spencer, Herbert. 1873. The Study of Sociology. London, England: Kegan Paul and Tench.Google Scholar
  73. Stirner, Max. 1907. The Ego and His Own. New York, NY, USA: Libertarian Book Club.Google Scholar
  74. Winch, P. 1958. The Idea of a Social Science. London, England: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  75. Wittgenstein, L. 1963. Philosophical Investigations. Oxford, England: Blackwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ManagementMarist CollegePoughkeepsieUSA

Personalised recommendations