Advertisement

Nano-materials for Wastewater Treatment

  • Anjali Tyagi
  • Anshika Tyagi
  • Zahoor A. Mir
  • Sajad Ali
  • Juhi Chaudhary
Chapter

Abstract

Heavy metal and ionic contamination in wastewater and surface water has been reported in many parts of the world and studied as a major global issue. Their exposure in a trace amount is hazardous for human health, thus; it is critical and challenging to remove undesirable metals from the water system. Today various methods have been placed for effective removal of heavy metals from the water like chemical precipitation, ion exchange, adsorption, membrane filtration and electrochemical technologies. The low-cost adsorbent has been studied as a substitute for costly current methods. The synthesis and characterization of nano-composite material for treating wastewater through adsorption using magnetic nano-sized ferric oxide (FeO) namely iron oxide have been discussed. It was then functionalized with graphene due to its large surface area. Due to the magnetic nature of this composite, it can be easily separated from the water under a magnetic field. Their chemical synthesis, characterization (XRD, SEM, TEM, and AAS), sorption behaviour of heavy metals [e.g. Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and As (III)] from aqueous systems under varying experimental conditions has also been studied.

Keywords

Adsorption; heavy metals; wastewater Graphene Granular ferric hydroxide Lead Chromium Cadmium 

References

  1. 75/440/EEC (1975) EC Directive concerning the quality required of surface water intended for the abstraction of drinking water in the Member States. Off J Eur Commun Legis 194(25/7):26–31Google Scholar
  2. 80/778/EEC (1980) EC Directive relating to the quality of water intended for human consumption. Off J Eur Commun Legis 229(30/8):11–29Google Scholar
  3. 98/83/EC (1998) EC Directive on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Off J Eur Commun Legis 330(5/12):32–54Google Scholar
  4. Abu Qdaisa H, Moussab H (2004) Removal of heavy metals from wastewater by membrane processes: a comparative study. Desalination 164:105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agahian B, Lee JS, Nelson JH et al (1990) Arsenic levels in fingernails as a biological indicator of exposure to arsenic. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 51(12):646–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (1989) Public health statement for cadmium. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  7. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2008) Toxicological profile for cadmium (Draft for Public Comment). U.S. Department of Public Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  8. Amann R, Lemmer H, Wagner M (1998) Monitoring the community structure of wastewater treatment plants: a comparison of old and new techniques. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 25:205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aziz HA, Adlan MN, Ariffin KS (2008) Heavy metals (Cd, Pd, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr(III)) removal from water in Malaysia: post treatment by high quality limestone. Bioresour Technol 99:1578–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Badillo-Almaraz V, Trocellier P, Davila-Rangel I (2003) Adsorption of aqueous Zn(II) species on synthetic zeolites. Nucl Inst Methods Phys Res B 210:424–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barer RM (1987a) Zeolites and clay minerals as sorbent and molecular sieves. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Barer RM (1987b) Zeolites and clay minerals as sorbent and molecular sieves. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Breck DW (1964) Crystalline molecular sieves. J Chem Educ 41:678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brunner GO (February 1993) Quantitative zeolite topology, can help to recognize erroneous structures and to plan syntheses. Zeolites 13(2):88–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Byers A (ed) (1995) Reader’s Digest Atlas of Canada. The Reader’s Digest Association (Canada) Ltd, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  16. Chambers C, Winfield M (2000) Mining’s many faces: environmental mining law and policy in Canada. Canadian Institute for Environmental Law and Policy, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  17. Deng X, Lu L, Li H, Luo F (2010) The adsorption properties of Pb(II) and Cd(II) on functionalized graphene prepared by electrolysis method. J Hazard Mater 183:923–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bruce ID, Sharon OS (2008) Drinking water treatment: reverse osmosis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension, and Institute of agriculture and Natural ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  19. Bruce ID, Sharon OS (2013) Drinking water treatment: activated carbon filtration. University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension, and Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  20. Environment Canada (2001) Threats to sources of drinking water and aquatic ecosystem health in Canada. National Water Research Institute, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  21. George Foundation (1999) Project lead-free: a study of lead poisoning in major Indian cities. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Lead Poisoning, Bangalore, India, 8–10 February Bangalore, The George Foundation. 79–86Google Scholar
  22. Handbook of Industrial membranes (1995) By Keith Scott, Elsevier Advanced Technology, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  23. Health and safety guidelines (2011) Occupational health and safety branch ministry of labour. ISBN 978-1-4435-6227-0 (PDF)Google Scholar
  24. IARC (1976) Cadmium, nickel, some epoxides, miscellaneous industrial chemicals and general considerations on volatile anaesthetics. In: IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man, vol 11. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, pp 39–74Google Scholar
  25. Industrial Wastewater Management, Treatment, and Disposal (2008) Water Environment Federation. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Ion Exchange, by F. Helfferich, McGraw Hill Book CompanyGoogle Scholar
  27. Ion Exchange in Analytical chemistry, by O. Samuelson, John Wiley and SonsGoogle Scholar
  28. Ion Exchange Resins, by R. Kunin, John Wiley and sonsGoogle Scholar
  29. Kurniawan TA, Chan GYS, Lo WH, Babel S (2006) Physico-chemical treatment technique for wastewater laden with heavy metals. Chem Eng J 118:83–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu XD, Tokura S, Nishi N, Sarkairi N (2003) A novel method for immobilization of chitosan onto non-porous glass beads through a 1, 3-thiazolidine linker. Polymer 44:1021–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu CW, Liang CP, Huang FM, Hsueh YM (2006) Assessing the human health risk from exposure of inorganic arsenic through oyster (Crassostrea gigas) consumption in Taiwan. Sci Total Environ 361:57–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.06.005. PMID: 16122780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA (2004) Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306:666–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nriagu JO, Blankson ML, Ocran K (1996) Childhood lead poisoning in Africa: a growing public health problem. Sci Total Environ 181(2):93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. OSHA (occupational safety and health administration) (2004) Cadmium, OSHA 3136-06R 2004Google Scholar
  35. Ramesha GK, Vijayakumar A, Muralidhara HB, Sampath S (2011) Graphene and graphene oxide as effective adsorbents towards anionic and cationic dyes. J Colloid Interface Sci 361:270–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Regional Municipality of Waterloo (1994) Water resources protection strategy. Regional Municipality of Waterloo, KitchenerGoogle Scholar
  37. Regional Municipality of Waterloo (1996) Take care of your land and the land will take care of your water: best management practices to ensure profitable production and the continued quality of your drinking water. Regional Municipality of Waterloo, KitchenerGoogle Scholar
  38. Regional Municipality of Waterloo (2000) Facts on Tap. Issues 1–5, October 1999 – August 2000. Regional Municipality of Waterloo, WaterlooGoogle Scholar
  39. Richardson D, Plewa J, Wagner D, Schoeny R, Demarini M (2007) Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research. Mutat Res 636(1–3):178–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Romieu I et al (1995) Environmental urban lead exposure and blood lead levels in children of Mexico City. Environ Health Perspect 103(11):1036–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ros JPM, Slooff W eds. (1987) Integrated criteria document. Cadmium. Bilthoven, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Report No. 758476004)Google Scholar
  42. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Water Quality Inventory: Report to Congress (2002) Reporting cycle: findings, rivers and streams, and lakes, ponds and reservoirsGoogle Scholar
  43. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2005) Protecting water quality from agricultural runoff. March 2005Google Scholar
  44. Viswanathan P et al (1991) Biological monitoring and lead and cadmium. In: Krishna Murti CR, Viswanathan P (eds) Toxic metals in the Indian environment. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New Delhi, pp 212–235Google Scholar
  45. Wang L, Chen A, Fields K (2000) Arsenic removal from drinking water by ion exchange and activated alumina plants. EPA/600/R-00/088, October 2000Google Scholar
  46. Ware GW (ed) (1989) Cadmium. US Environmental Protection Agency Office of drinking water health advisories. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 107:25–37Google Scholar
  47. Membrane handbook (1992) By W.S. Winston Ho and Kamlesh K. Sirkar, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Yang ST, Chen S, Chang Y, Cao A, Liu Y, Wang H (2011) Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by graphene oxide. J Colloid Interface Sci 359:24–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zeng Y et al (2010) Adsorption of Cr (VI) on hexadecylpyridium bromide (HDPB) modified natural zeolites. J Micropor Mesopor Mater 130(1–3):83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anjali Tyagi
    • 1
  • Anshika Tyagi
    • 2
  • Zahoor A. Mir
    • 2
  • Sajad Ali
    • 3
  • Juhi Chaudhary
    • 4
  1. 1.CSIR-National Physical LaboratoryNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.NRCPBIARINew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.CORDUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia
  4. 4.College of Agricultural and Life SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations