Recent Advancement in Wastewater Decontamination Technology

  • Mohammad Shahadat
  • Akil Ahmad
  • Rani Bushra
  • Suzylawati Ismail
  • Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
  • S. Wazed Ali
  • Mohd. Rafatullah


Water contamination has become a worldwide severe environmental problem owing to the existence of heavy metal ions. Extension of industrializations is releasing heavy metals ions containing effluents into water bodies and causes damage to the aquatic environment. Treatment of industrial wastewaters using ion-exchange adsorbents has achieved attractiveness in comparison to other treatment methods. The present chapter deals with the preparation and characterization of Polyaniline (PANI)-Titanium-supported nanocomposites ion-exchanger materials. It generally focuses on the ion exchange behavior of nanocomposites for the detection of heavy metal ions in wastewater, industrial effluents, and synthetic mixtures. These nanomaterials have been characterized using advanced techniques of characterizations. Physico-chemical properties; ion uptake efficiency, pH titration, the effect of temperature as well as concentration and kinetic studies have been examined to establish the significant performance of these materials to achieve maximum adsorption towards heavy metal ions. These nanomaterials demonstrated significant ion uptake efficiency, high thermal and chemical stability as compared to pure organic or inorganic ion-exchanger adsorbents. Based on high ion-exchange capacity, the nanomaterials can be successfully used in the wastewater treatment. In spite of the detection of metal pollutants in contaminated waters, these nanocomposites ion-exchange adsorbents can also be effectively utilized in other fields (e.g., Photochemical degradation of organic contaminants, antimicrobial agents, and conducting material). On the basis of excellent performance of titanium-supported nanocomposite in terms of metal removal efficiency, it is anticipated that these nanomaterials could be open, innovative ways to show their excellent uses in diverse fields.


Polyaniline Heavy metal ions Conducting material Ion-exchanger Nanocomposite 



The authors express their appreciations to, 1Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, 2Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi-110016, India. One of the authors (Dr. Md. Shahadat) is very much thankful to SERB-DST (SB/FT/CS-122/2014), Govt. of India for awarding a Postdoctoral research grant to carry out research at IIT Delhi.


  1. Ahmad R, Kumar R, Haseeb S (2012) Adsorption of Cu2+ from aqueous solution onto iron oxide coated eggshell powder: evaluation of equilibrium, isotherms, kinetics, and regeneration capacity. Arab J Chem 5:353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AL-Othman ZA, Inamuddin, Naushad M (2011a) Inamuddin, forward (M2+−H+) and reverse (H+−M2+) ion exchange kinetics of the heavy metals on polyaniline Ce(IV) molybdate: a simple practical approach for the determination of regeneration and separation capability of ion exchanger. Chem Eng J 171:456–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AL-Othman ZA, Inamuddin, Naushad M (2011b) Adsorption thermodynamics of trichloroacetic acid herbicide on polypyrrole Th(IV) phosphate composite cation-exchanger. Chem Eng J 169:38–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amin NK (2008) Removal of reactive dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbons prepared from sugarcane bagasse pith. Desalination 223:152–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andreu G, Vidal T (2013) Laccase from pycnoporus cinnabarinus and phenolic compounds: can the efficiency of an enzyme mediator for delignifying kenaf pulp be predicted? Bioresour Technol 131:536–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andreu G, Barneto AG, Vidal T (2013) A new biobleaching sequence for kenaf pulp: influence of the chemical nature of the mediator and thermogravimetric analysis of the pulp. Bioresour Technol 130:431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arfin T, Jabeen F, Kriek RJ (2011) An electrochemical and theoretical comparison of ionic transport through a polystyrene based titanium-vanadium (1:2) phosphate membrane. Desalination 274(1–3):206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arrad O, Sasson Y (1989) Commercial ion exchange resins as catalysts in solid-solid-liquid reactions. J Org Chem 54:4993–4998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Azelee NIW, Jahim JM, Rabu A, Murad AMA, Bakar FDA, Illias RM (2014) Efficient removal of lignin with the maintenance of hemicellulose from kenaf by two-stage pretreatment process. Carbohydr Polym 99:447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barakat MA, Ramadan MH, Alghamdhi MA, Algarny SS, Woodcock HL, Kuhn JN (2013) Remediation of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Cr(III) ions from simulated wastewater by dendrimer titania composites. J Environ Manag 117:50–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barbieri L, Bonamartini AC, Lancellotti I (2000) Alkaline and alkaline-earth silicate glasses and glass-ceramics from municipal and industrial wastes. J Eur Ceram Soc 20:2477–2483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brzonova I, Kozliak E, Kubatova A, Chebeir M, Qin W, Christopher L, Ji Y (2014) Kenaf biomass biodecomposition by basidiomycetes and actinobacteria in submerged fermentation for production of carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. Bioresour Technol 173:352–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bushra R, Shahadat M, Nabi SA, Raeissi AS, Oves M, Umar K, Muneer M, Ahmad A (2014a) Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and applications of composite adsorbent for the analysis of organic and inorganic pollutants. J Hazard Mater 264:481–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bushra R, Mohammad, Shahadat M (2014b) Synthesis, characterization and applications of nanocomposite materials in diverse fields. Adv Environ Res 35:105–130Google Scholar
  15. Bushra R, Shahadat M, Ahmad A, Nabi SA, Raeissi AS, Umar K, Oves M, Muneer M (2014c) Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and applications of composite adsorbent for the analysis of organic and inorganic pollutants. J Hazard Mater 264:481–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bushra R, Naushad M, Adnan R, AL-Othman ZA, Rafatullah M (2015) Polyaniline supported nanocomposite cation exchanger: synthesis, characterization and applications for the efficient removal of Pb2+ ion from aqueous medium. J Ind Eng Chem 21:1112–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bushra R, Ahmed A, Shahadat Md (2016) Mechanism of adsorption on nanomaterials. Advanced environmental analysis, pp 90–111Google Scholar
  18. Cabrera L, Gutierrez S, Herrasti P, Reyman D (2010) Sonoelectrochemical syn- thesis of magnetite. Phys Procedia 3:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen GC, He ZL, Stoffella PJ, Yang XE (2006) Leaching potential of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn) from acidic sandy soil amended with dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers. J Trace Elem Med Biol 20:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chena YD, Chena WQ, Huang B, Huang MJ (2013) Process optimization of K2C2O4-activated carbon from kenaf core using box–Behnken design. Chem Eng Res Des 91:1783–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cuerda-Correa EM, Antonio Macías-Garcia A, Diez MAD, Ortiz AL (2008) Textural and morphological study of activated carbon fibers prepared from kenaf. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 111:523–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dizge N, Aydiner C, Demirbas E, Kobya M, Kara S (2008) Adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by fly ash: kinetic and equilibrium studies. J Hazard Mater 150:737–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Duval C (1963) Inorganic thermogravimetric analysis. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 315Google Scholar
  24. El-Naggar IM, Zakaria ES, Ali IM, Khalil M, El-Shahat MF (2012) Chemical studies on polyaniline titanotungstate and its uses to reduction cesium from solutions and polluted milk. J Environ Radioact 112:108–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Engstrom K, Broberg K, Concha G, Nermell B, Warholm M, Vahter M (2007) Genetic polymorphisms influencing arsenic metabolism: evidence from Argentina. Environ Health Perspect 115(4):599–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Engstrom K, Nermell B, Concha G, Stromberg U, Vahter M, Broberg K (2009) Arsenic metabolism is influenced by polymorphisms in genes involved in one-carbon metabolism and reduction reactions. Mutat Res 667(1–2):4–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Engstrom KS, Vahter M, Lindh C, Teichert F, Singh R, Concha G (2010) Low 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine levels and influence of genetic background in an Andean population exposed to high levels of arsenic. Mutat Res 683:98–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gan S, Zakaria S, Chia CH, Padzil FNM, Ng P (2015) Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on solubility and formation of kenaf cellulose membrane and hydrogel. Carbohydr Polym 115:62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hao A, Zhao H, Chen JY (2013) Kenaf/polypropylene nonwoven composites: the influence of manufacturing conditions on mechanical, thermal, and acoustical performance. Compos Part B 54:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hasfalina CM, Maryam RZ, Luqman CA, Rashid M (2012) Adsorption of copper (II) from aqueous medium in fixed-bed column by kenaf fibres. APCBEE Procedia 3:255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Inagaki M, Nishikawa T, Sakuratani K, Katakura T, Konno H, Morozumi E (2004) Carbonization of kenaf to prepare highly-microporous carbons. Lett Ed/Carbon 42:885–901Google Scholar
  32. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (2001) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  33. Ip AWM, Barford JP, McKay G (2010) Acomparative study onthe kinetics andmechanisms of removal of reactive black 5 by adsorption onto activated carbons and bone char. Chem Eng J 157:434–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Irmak S, Ozturk I (2010) Hydrogen rich gas production by thermocatalytic decomposition of kenaf biomass. Int J Hydrog Energy 35:5312–5317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ishrat U, Rafiuddin (2012) Synthesis, characterization and electrical properties of titanium molybdate composite membrane. Desalination 286:8–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jeun J, Min BL, Young JL, Hyun KP, Park JK (2015) An irradiation-alkaline pretreatment of kenaf core for improving the sugar yield. Renew Energy 79:51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. John MJ, Bellmann C, Anandjiwala RD (2010) Kenaf–polypropylene composites: effect of amphiphilic coupling agent on surface properties of fibres and composites. Carbohydr Polym 82:549–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Khalil HPSA, Yusra AFI, Bhat AH, Jawaid M (2010) Cell wall ultrastructure, anatomy, lignin distribution, and chemical comp osition of Malaysian cultivated kenaf fiber. Ind Crop Prod 31:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Khan AA, Akhtar T (2008) Preparation, physico-chemical characterization and electrical conductivity measurement studies of an organic–inorganic nanocomposite cation-exchanger: poly-o-toluidine Zr(IV) phosphate. Electrochim Acta 53:5540–5548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Khan AA, Alam MM (2003) Synthesis, characterization and analytical applications of a new and novel ‘organic–inorganic’ compositematerial as a cation exchanger and Cd(II) ion-selective membrane electrode: polyaniline Sn(IV) tungstoarsenate. Rect Funct Polym 55:277–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Khan AA, Baig U (2012) Electrically conductive membrane of polyaniline–titanium(IV)phosphate cation exchange nanocomposite: applicable for detection of Pb(II) using its ion-selective electrode. J Ind Eng Chem 18(6):1937–1944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Khan AA, Baig U (2013) Electrical conductivity and ammonia sensing studies on in situ polymerized poly(3-methythiophene)-titanium(IV)molybdophosphate cation exchange nanocomposite. Saens Actuators: B 177:1089–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Khan AA, Inamuddin AMM (2005) Determination and separation of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions using a fibrous type organic–inorganic hybrid cation-exchange material: Polypyrrole thorium(IV) phosphate. Rect Funct Polym 63:119–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Khan AA, Innamuddin (2006) Application of Hg(II) sensitive polyaniline Sn(IV) phosphate composite cation exchange material in determination of Hg2+ from aqueous solutions and in making ion selective membrane electrode. Saens Actuators B 120:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Khan AA, Paquiza L (2011a) Characterization and ion-exchange behavior of thermally stable nano-composite polyaniline zirconium titanium phosphate: its analytical application in separation of toxic metals. Desalination 265(1–3):242–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Khan AA, Paquiza L (2011b) Analysis of mercury ions in effluents using potentiometric sensor based on nanocomposite cation exchanger polyaniline–zirconium titanium phosphate. Desalination 272(1–3):278–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Khan AA, Shaheen S (2012) Thermal stability and electrical properties of conducting polymer based ‘polymeric–inorganic’ composites: poly-o-anisidine and poly-o-toluidine Sn(IV) tungstate. Mater Res Bull 47:4414–4441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Khan AA, Shaheen S (2014) Chronopotentiometric and electroanalytical studies of Ni(II) selective polyaniline Zr(IV) molybdophosphate ion exchange membrane electrode. J Rect Funct Polym Chem 714–715:38–44Google Scholar
  49. Khan AA, Shaheen S (2015) Preparation, characterization and kinetics of ion exchange studies of Ni2+ selective polyaniline–Zr(IV)molybdophosphate nanocomposite cation exchanger. J Ind Eng Chem 26:157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng YM, Huang YZ, Zlm YG (2008) Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environ Pollut 152:686–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Khan AA, Baig U, Khalid M (2011) Ammonia vapor sensing properties of polyaniline–titanium(IV)phosphate cation exchange nanocomposite. J Hazard Mater 186(2–3):2037–2042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Khan AA, Baig U, Khalid M (2013) Electrically conductive polyaniline-titanium(IV)molybdophosphate cation exchange nanocomposite: synthesis, characterization and alcohol vapour sensing properties. J Ind Eng Chem 19:1226–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Khan MDA, Akhtar A, Nabi SA, Khan MA (2014) Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of polyaniline-Sn(IV)iodophosphate nanocomposite: its application in wastewater detoxification. Ind Eng Chem Res 53:15253–15260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Khan AA, Rao RAK, Alam N, Shaheen S (2015) Formaldehyde sensing properties and electrical conductivity of newly synthesized Polypyrrole-zirconium(IV)selenoiodate cation exchange nanocomposite. Saens Actuators B 211:419–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kim HT, Lee CH, Shul YG, Moon JK, Lee EH (2003) Evolution of PAN-TiO2 compoiste adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions in aqueous solution. Sep Sci Technol 38(3):695–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kurniawan TA, Chan GYS, Hung LW, Babel S (2006) Physico–chemical treatment techniques for wastewater laden with heavy metals. Chem Eng J 118:83–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Long XX, Yang XE, Ni WZ (2002) Current status and prospective on phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Chin J Appl Ecol 13:757–762Google Scholar
  58. Mahmoud DK, Salleh MAM, Karim WA, Idris A, Abidin ZZ (2012) Batch adsorption of basic dye using acid treated kenaf fibre char: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Chem Eng J 181–182:449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mascolo MC, Pei Y, Ring TA (2013) Room temperature co-precipitation synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles in a large pH window with different bases. Materials 6:5549–5567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Meng Ng H, Sin LT, Ting TT, Bee ST, Hui D, Yu LC, Rahmat AR (2015) Extraction of cellulose nanocrystals from plant sources for application as reinforcing agent in polymers. Compos Part B 75:176–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Misha S, Mat S, Ruslan MH, Salleh E, Sopian K (2015) Performance of a solar assisted solid desiccant dryer for kenaf core fiber drying under low solar radiation. Sol Energy 112:194–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mui ELK, Cheung WH, McKay G (2010) Tyre char preparation from waste Tyre rubber for dye removal from effluents. J Hazard Mater 175:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nabi SA, Shahadat M, Bushra R, Shalla AH, Azam A (2011a) Synthesis and characterization of nano-composite ion-exchanger; its adsorption behaviour. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 87:122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nabi SA, Shahadat M, Bushra R, Oves M, Ahmed F (2011b) Synthesis and characterization of polyanilineZr(IV)sulphosalicylate composite and its applications (1) electrical conductivity, (2) and antimicrobial activity studies. Chem Eng J 173:706–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nabi SA, Bushra R, Shahadat M, Raeissi AS (2012a) Development of nano-composite adsorbent for removal of metals from industrial effluent and synthetic mixtures; its conducting behaviour. Desalination 289:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nabi SA, Bushra R, Shahadat M (2012b) Removal of toxic metal ions by using composite cation-exchange material. J Appl Polym Sci 125:3438–3446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nabi SA, Raeissi AS, Shahadat M, Bushra R, Khan AMT (2012c) Synthesis and characterization of novel cation exchange adsorbent for the treatment of real samples for metal ions. Chem Eng J 200–202:426–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nabi SA, Akhtar A, Khan MDA, Khan MA (2014) Synthesis, characterization and electrical conductivity of polyaniline-Sn(IV)tungstophosphate hybrid cation exchanger: analytical application for removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater. Desalination 340:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nacos MK, Katapodis P, Pappas C, Daferera D, Tarantilis PA, Christakopoulos P, Polissiou M (2006) Kenaf xylan – a source of biologically active acidic oligosaccharides. Carbohydr Polym 66:126–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Naggar IME, Zakaria ES, Ali IM, Khalil M, El-Shahat MF (2012) Kinetic modeling analysis for the removal of cesium ions from aqueous solutions using polyaniline titanotungstate. Arab J Chem 5(1):109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nakamoto K (1986) Infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic and coordination compounds. Part B: Applications in coordination, organometallic, and bioinorganic chemistry, 6th edn. Wiley, New York, p 154Google Scholar
  72. Othman MR, Akil MH (2008) The CO2 adsorptive and regenerative behaviors of Rhizopus oligosporus and carbonaceous Hibiscus cannabinus exposed to thermal swings. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 110:363–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pereira FV, Gurgel LVA, Gil LF (2010) Removal of Zn2þ from aqueous single metal solutions and electroplating wastewater with wood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse modified with EDTA di-Anhydride (EDTAD). J Hazard Mater 176:856–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Raman NK, Anderson MT, Brinker CJ (1996) Template-based approaches to the preparation of amorphous, nanoporous silicas. Chem Mater 8:1682–1701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rao CNR (1963a) Application of infrared spectroscopy. Academic, New York, p 355Google Scholar
  76. Rao CNR (1963b) Chemical applications of infrared spectroscopy. Academic, New York, p 338Google Scholar
  77. Rawat M, Ramanathan AL, Subramanian V (2009) Quantification and distribution of heavy metals from small-scale industrial areas of Kanpur City, India. J Hazard Mater 172:1145–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shahadat M, Bushra R (2015) Synthesis, characterization and significant applications of PANI-Zr(IV)sulphosalicylate nanocomposite. Adv Nanotechnol 13:81–206Google Scholar
  79. Shahadat M, Nabi SA, Bushra R, Raeissi AS, Umar K, Ansari MO (2012) Synthesis, characterization, photolytic degradation, electrical conductivity and applications of nanocomposite adsorbent for the treatment of pollutants. RSC Adv 2:7207–7220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shahadat M, Teng TT, Rafatullah M, Arshad M (2015) Titanium-based nanocomposite materials: a review of recent advances and perspectives. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 126:121–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sharif J, Mohamad SF, Othman NAF, Bakaruddin NA, Osman HN, Güven O (2013) Graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate onto delignified kenaf fibers through pre-irradiation technique. Radiat Phys Chem 91:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sharma G, Pathania D, Naushad M, Kothiyal NC (2014) Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activity of polyaniline Th(IV) tungstomolybdophosphate nanocomposite material: efficient removal of toxic metal ions from water. Chem Eng J 251:413–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Silverstein RM, Bassler GC, Morrill TC (1981) Chapter 3: Spectrometric identification of organic compounds, 4th edn. Wiley, New York, p 111Google Scholar
  84. Sud D, Mahajan G, Kaur MP (2008) Agricultural waste material as potential adsorbent for sequestering heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions – a review. Bioresour Technol 99:6017–6027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sun D, Zhang WY, Liu X (2010) Adsorption of anionic dyes fromaqueous solution on fly ash. J Hazard Mater 181:335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tennakone K, Wijayantha KGU (1998) Heavy-metal extraction from aqueous medium with immobilized TiO2 photocatalyst and a solid sacrificial agent. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 113(1):89–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Topp NE, Pepper KW (1949) Properties of ion-exchange resins in relation to their structure. Part I. Titration curves. J Chem Soc 1949:3299–3303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vatutsina OM, Soldatov VS, Sokolova VI, Johann J, Bissen M, Weissenbacher A (2007) A new hybrid (polymer/inorganic) fibrous sorbent for arsenic removal from drinking water. Rect Funct Polym 67:184–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Xie L, Jiang R, Zhu F, Liu H, Ouyang G (2014) Application of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles in sample preparation. Anal Bioanal Chem 406:377–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yang Y, Wang P (2006) Preparation and characterizations of a new PS/TiO2 hybrid membrane by sol-gel process. Polymer 47(8):2683–2688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhang M, Guangzhi H, Pan G (2009) Combined DFT and IR evidence on metastable-equilibrium adsorption of arsenate on TiO2−surfaces. J Colloid Interface Sci 338:284–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Shahadat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Akil Ahmad
    • 3
  • Rani Bushra
    • 4
  • Suzylawati Ismail
    • 5
  • Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
    • 1
  • S. Wazed Ali
    • 2
  • Mohd. Rafatullah
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Biochemical Engineering and BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Textile TechnologyIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGelugorMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  5. 5.School of Chemical EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGelugorMalaysia
  6. 6.School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGelugorMalaysia

Personalised recommendations