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Recent Advancement in Wastewater Decontamination Technology

  • Mohammad Shahadat
  • Akil Ahmad
  • Rani Bushra
  • Suzylawati Ismail
  • Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
  • S. Wazed Ali
  • Mohd. Rafatullah
Chapter

Abstract

Water contamination has become a worldwide severe environmental problem owing to the existence of heavy metal ions. Extension of industrializations is releasing heavy metals ions containing effluents into water bodies and causes damage to the aquatic environment. Treatment of industrial wastewaters using ion-exchange adsorbents has achieved attractiveness in comparison to other treatment methods. The present chapter deals with the preparation and characterization of Polyaniline (PANI)-Titanium-supported nanocomposites ion-exchanger materials. It generally focuses on the ion exchange behavior of nanocomposites for the detection of heavy metal ions in wastewater, industrial effluents, and synthetic mixtures. These nanomaterials have been characterized using advanced techniques of characterizations. Physico-chemical properties; ion uptake efficiency, pH titration, the effect of temperature as well as concentration and kinetic studies have been examined to establish the significant performance of these materials to achieve maximum adsorption towards heavy metal ions. These nanomaterials demonstrated significant ion uptake efficiency, high thermal and chemical stability as compared to pure organic or inorganic ion-exchanger adsorbents. Based on high ion-exchange capacity, the nanomaterials can be successfully used in the wastewater treatment. In spite of the detection of metal pollutants in contaminated waters, these nanocomposites ion-exchange adsorbents can also be effectively utilized in other fields (e.g., Photochemical degradation of organic contaminants, antimicrobial agents, and conducting material). On the basis of excellent performance of titanium-supported nanocomposite in terms of metal removal efficiency, it is anticipated that these nanomaterials could be open, innovative ways to show their excellent uses in diverse fields.

Keywords

Polyaniline Heavy metal ions Conducting material Ion-exchanger Nanocomposite 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors express their appreciations to, 1Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, 2Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi-110016, India. One of the authors (Dr. Md. Shahadat) is very much thankful to SERB-DST (SB/FT/CS-122/2014), Govt. of India for awarding a Postdoctoral research grant to carry out research at IIT Delhi.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Shahadat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Akil Ahmad
    • 3
  • Rani Bushra
    • 4
  • Suzylawati Ismail
    • 5
  • Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
    • 1
  • S. Wazed Ali
    • 2
  • Mohd. Rafatullah
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Biochemical Engineering and BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Textile TechnologyIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGelugorMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  5. 5.School of Chemical EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGelugorMalaysia
  6. 6.School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGelugorMalaysia

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