Determination of Limiting Current Density, Plateau Length, and Ohmic Resistance of a Heterogeneous Membrane for the Treatment of Industrial Wastewaters with Copper Ions in Acid Media

  • K. S. BarrosEmail author
  • J. A. S. Tenório
  • V. Pérez-Herranz
  • D. C. R. Espinosa
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


In the last years, the electrodialysis process has been considered as an alternative to the chemical precipitation for the treatment of wastewaters from electroplating industries due to some limitations involved in the precipitation, as the sludge formation. For the success of the electrodialysis, some membranes properties have to be evaluated and the chronopotentiometry technique can be used. Hence, the present paper aimed at using chronopotentiometry for determining the limiting current density, plateau length, and ohmic resistance of the cationic heterogeneous HDX100 membrane by constructing current–voltage curves. The synthesized solution of the effluent from the electroplating industry evaluated was prepared with copper sulfate and sulfuric acid (2 g Cu2+/L and pH 2). The chronopotentiometric curves were also evaluated for the study of the precipitate formation. According to the results, typical curves of monopolar membranes were obtained and the properties could be effectively determined by chronopotentiometry.


Electrodialysis Copper Electroplating industry Limiting current Chronopotentiometry 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support given by funding agencies CNPq (Process 141346/2016-7) and FAPESP (Process 2012/51871-9).


  1. 1.
    Musa AY, Slaiman QJM, Kadhum AAH, Takriff MS (2008) Effects of agitation, current density and cyanide concentration on Cu-Zn Alloy electroplating. Eur J Sci Res 22:517–524Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dini JW, Snyder DD (2011) Electrodeposition of copper. In: Modern electroplating. Wiley, Hoboken, USA, pp 33–78. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barros KS, Scarazzato T, Espinosa DCR (2018) Evaluation of the effect of the solution concentration and membrane morphology on the transport properties of Cu(II) through two monopolar cation–exchange membranes. Sep Purif Technol 193. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Survila A, Mockus Z, Kanapeckaite S, Stalnionis G (2013) Kinetics of zinc and copper reduction in gluconate-sulfate solutions. Electrochim Acta 94:307–313. Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ogutveren UB, Koparal S, Ozel E (2008) Electrodialysis for the removal of copper ions from wastewater. J Environ Sci Health Part A-Environ Sci Eng 32:749–761. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang JH, Ellis AV, Tung CH, Huang WC (2010) Copper cation transport and scaling of ionic exchange membranes using electrodialysis under electroconvection conditions. J Memb Sci 361:56–62. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Caprarescu S, Purcar V, Vaireanu D-I (2012) Separation of copper ions from synthetically prepared electroplating wastewater at different operating conditions using electrodialysis. Sep Sci Technol 47:2273–2280. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ku Y, Jung IL (2001) Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions by UV irradiation with the presence of titanium dioxide. Water Res 35:135–142. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fu F, Wang Q (2011) Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review. J Environ Manage 92:407–418. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frioui S, Oumeddour R, Lacour S (2017) Highly selective extraction of metal ions from dilute solutions by hybrid electrodialysis technology. Sep Purif Technol 174:264–274. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Benvenuti T, Krapf RS, Rodrigues MAS, Bernardes AM, Zoppas-Ferreira J (2014) Recovery of nickel and water from nickel electroplating wastewater by electrodialysis. Sep Purif Technol 129:106–112. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marder L, Ortega Navarro EM, Perez-Herranz V, Bernardes AM, Ferreira JZ (2006) Evaluation of transition metals transport properties through a cation exchange membrane by chronopotentiometry. J Memb Sci 284:267–275. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pismenskaia N, Sistat P, Huguet P, Nikonenko V, Pourcelly G (2004) Chronopotentiometry applied to the study of ion transfer through anion exchange membranes. J Memb Sci 228:65–76. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barros KS, Scarazzato T, Espinosa DCR (2018) Evaluation of the effect of the solution concentration and membrane morphology on the transport properties of Cu(II) through two monopolar cation–exchange membranes. Sep Purif Technol 193:184–192. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Peng C, Liu Y, Bi J, Xu H, Ahmed AS (2011) Recovery of copper and water from copper-electroplating wastewater by the combination process of electrolysis and electrodialysis. J Hazard Mater 189:814–820. Scholar
  16. 16.
    Caprarescu S, Corobea MC, Purcar V, Spataru CI, Ianchis R, Vasilievici G, Vuluga Z (2015) San copolymer membranes with ion exchangers for Cu(II) removal from synthetic wastewater by electrodialysis. J Environ Sci (China) 35:27–37. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Alebrahim MF, Khattab IA, Sharif AO (2015) Electrodeposition of copper from a copper sulfate solution using a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current. Egypt J Pet 24:325–331. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alcaraz A, Wilhelm FG, Wessling M, Ramı́rez P (2001) The role of the salt electrolyte on the electrical conductive properties of a polymeric bipolar membrane. J Electroanal Chem 513:36–44. Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bittencourt SD, Marder L, Benvenuti T, Ferreira JZ, Bernardes AM (2017) Analysis of different current density conditions in the electrodialysis of zinc electroplating process solution. Sep Sci Technol 52:2079–2089. Scholar
  20. 20.
    Puigdomench I (2001) Hydra Medusa—make equilibrium diagrams using sophisticated algorithmsGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nightingale ER (1959) Phenomenological theory of ion solvation. Effective radii of hydrated ions. J Phys Chem 63:1381–1387. Scholar
  22. 22.
    García-Gabaldón M, Pérez-Herranz V, Ortega E (2011) Evaluation of two ion-exchange membranes for the transport of tin in the presence of hydrochloric acid. J Memb Sci 371:65–74. Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Barros
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. A. S. Tenório
    • 1
  • V. Pérez-Herranz
    • 2
  • D. C. R. Espinosa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringSão Paulo UniversitySão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.IEC Group, Departament d’enginyeria Quimica i NuclearUniversitat Politècnica de ValènciaValènciaSpain

Personalised recommendations