Advertisement

Musculoskeletal Health and Healthy Ageing

  • Sharon L. Brennan-Olsen
  • Alan Hayes
  • Gustavo DuqueEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The global shift in age demographics is undisputed. However, increased longevity does not necessarily equate to extra years lived in good health; rather, some older populations appear to be living longer with declining physical capacities. Inherent in the ageing process is between person diversity in biological declines and functional capacity; however, the subtle physiological changes that occur over time are only loosely associated with age. Older age should not imply frailty, pain, or dependence. Muscle, bone, and joint health are important determinants of healthy ageing. This chapter discusses some of the more common diseases affecting muscle, bone, and joints in the context of healthy ageing, including the pathophysiology and the primary (before disease is present), secondary (when disease is identified), and tertiary (existing disease) prevention. We end the chapter with a consideration of how to achieve efficacious prevention of musculoskeletal diseases to maximise function and independence across the lifespan.

Keywords

Healthy ageing Musculoskeletal Sarcopenia Osteoporosis Osteosarcopenia Falls Fractures Mobility Disability 

References

  1. 1.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, et al. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing. 2012;39:412–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hirschfeld HP, Kinsella R, Duque G. Osteosarcopenia: where bone, muscle, and fat collide. Osteoporos Int. 2017;28(10):2781–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scott D, de Courten B, Ebeling PR. Sarcopenia: a potential cause and consequence of type 2 diabetes in Australia’s ageing population? Med J Aust. 2016;205(7):329–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Narici MV, Mafulli N. Sarcopenia: characteristics, mechanisms and functional significance. Br Med Bull. 2010;95(1):139–59.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Miljkovic N, Lim J-Y, Miljkovic I, Frontera WR. Aging of skeletal muscle fibers. Ann Rehabil Med. 2015;39(2):155–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Farshidfar F, Shulgina V, Myrie SB. Nutritional supplementations and administration considerations for sarcopenia in older adults. Nutr Aging. 2015;3:147–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bowen TS, Schuler G, Adams V. Skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia and sarcopenia: molecular pathophysiology and impact of exercise training. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2015;6(3):197–207.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Scott D, Blizzard L, Fell J, Jones G. The epidemiology of sarcopenia in community living older adults: what role does lifestyle play. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2011;2:125.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Reijnierse EM, Trappenburg MC, Leter MH, Blauw GJ, de van der Schueren MAE, Meskers CGM, Maier AB. The association between parameters of malnutrition and diagnostic measures of sarcopenia in geriatric outpatients. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135933.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McLean RR, Kiel DP. Developing consensus criteria for sarcopenia: an update. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30(4):588–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dennison HJ, Cooper C, Sayer AA, Robinson SM. Prevention and optimal management of sarcopenia: a review of combined exercise and nutrition interventions to improve muscle outcomes in older people. Clin Interv Aging. 2015;10:859–69.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bijlsma AY, Meskers CGM, Ling CHY, Narici M, Kurrle SE, Cameron ID, Westendorp RGJ, Maier AB. Defining sarcopenia: the impact of different diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of sarcopenia in a large middle aged cohort. Age (Dordr). 2013;35(3):871–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Phu S, Boersma D, Duque G. Exercise and sarcopenia. J Clin Densitom. 2015;18(4):488–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Paddon-Jones D, Campbell WW, Jacques PF, Kritchevsky SB, Moore LL, Rodriguez NR, van Loon LJC. Protein and healthy aging. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(Suppl):1339S–45S.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Paddon-Jones D, Short KR, Campbell WW, Volpi E, Wolfe RR. Role of dietary protein in the sarcopenia of aging. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):15625–65.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bauer J, Biolo G, Cederholm T, Cesari M, Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Morley JE, Phillips S, Sieber C, Stehle P, Teta D, Visvanathan R, Volpi E, Boirie Y. Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013;14(8):542–59.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deutz NE, Bauer JM, Barazzoni R, Biolo G, Boirie Y, Bosy-Westphal A, Cederholm T, Cruz-Jentoft A, Krznaric Z, Nair KS, Singer P, Teta D, Tipton K, Calder PC. Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group. Clin Nutr. 2014;33(6):929–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ebeling PR, Daly RM, Kerr DA, Kimlin MG. Building healthy bones throughout life: an evidence-informed strategy to prevent osteoporosis in Australia. Med J Aust. 2013;2:1–46.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bischoff HA, Stahelin HB, Dick W, et al. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18(2):343–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burton LA, Sumukadas D. Optimal management of sarcopenia. Clin Interv Aging. 2010;5:217–28.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morley JE, Thomas DR, Wilson M-MG. Cachexia: pathophysiology and clinical relevance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(4):735–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gullett NP, Mazurak V, Hebbar G, Ziegler TR. Nutritional interventions for cancer-induced cachexia. Curr Probl Cancer. 2011;35(2):58–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Konishi M, Ishida J, von Haehling S, Anker SD, Springer J. Nutrition in cachexia: from bench to bedside. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2016;7(2):107–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Taylor JK, Pendleton N. Progesterone therapy for the treatment of non-cancer cachexia: a systematic review. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2016;6(3):276–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Osteoporosis Australia. Diagnosing osteoporosis 2013. 2013. Accessed Apr 2014.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    International Osteoporosis Foundation. Impact of osteoporosis [webpage]. 2015. Accessed 20 Apr 2015.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Watts NB, Bilezikian JP, Camacho PM, Greenspan SL, Harris ST, Hodgson SF, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the diagnosis and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Pract. 2010;16(Suppl 3):1–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    WHO. Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1994.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Watts J, Abimanyi-Ochom J, Sanders KM. Osteoporosis costing all Australians: a new burden of disease analysis – 2012 to 2022. Glebe: Osteoporosis Australia; 2013.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Johnell O, Kanis JA. An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17:1726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sanchez-Riera L, Carnahan E, Vos T, Veerman L, Norman R, Lim SS, Hoy D, Smith E, Wilson N, Nolla JM, Chen JS, Macara M, Kamalaraj N, Li T, Kok C, Santos-Hernandez C, March L. The global burden attributable to low bone mineral density. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73(9):1635–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Duque G, et al. Chapter 118: Osteoporosis. In: Hazzard textbook in geriatric medicine. 6th ed: McGraw Hill. New York; 2016.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    RACGP. Clinical guidelines for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men. Royal Australian College of General Practitioners: Melbourne; 2010.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pasco JA, Seeman E, Henry MJ, Merriman EN, Nicholson GC, Kotowicz MA. The population burden of fractures originates in women with osteopenia, not osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17:1404–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Harvey N, Dennison E, Cooper C. Osteoporosis: a lifecourse approach. J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29(9):1917–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brennan-Olsen SL, Page RS, Berk M, Riancho JA, Leslie WD, Wilson SG, Saban KL, Janusek L, Pasco JA, Hodge JM, Quirk SE, Hyde NK, Hosking SM, Williams LJ. DNA methylation and the social gradient of osteoporotic fracture: a conceptual model. Bone. 2016;84:204–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Peacock M. Calcium metabolism in health and disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5(Suppl 1):S23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brown EM. The calcium-sensing receptor: physiology, pathophysiology and CaR-based therapeutics. Subcell Biochem. 2007;45:139–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jurutka PW, Whitfield GK, Hsieh JC, Thompson PD, Haussler CA, Haussler MR. Molecular nature of the vitamin D receptor and its role in regulation of gene expression. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2001;2:203–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tang B, Eslick G, Nowson C, Smith C, Bensoussan A. Use of calcium or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in people aged 50 years and older: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370(9588):657–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hosking SM, Pasco JA, Hyde NK, Williams LJ, Brennan-Olsen SL. Recommendations for dietary calcium intake and bone health: the role of health literacy. Nutr Food Sci. 2016;6(1):1–3.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Osteoporosis International. Vitamin D Consumer guide. 4th ed: Osteoporosis International; Sydney, Australia; 2017.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ganda K, Puech M, Chen JS, Speerin R, Bleasel J, Center JR, Eisman JA, March L, Seibel MJ. Models of care for the secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24(2):393–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Giangregorio L, Papaioannou A, Cranney A, Zytaruk N, Adachi JD. Fragility fractures and the osteoporosis care gap: an international phenomenon. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2006;35(5):293–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Shibli-Rahhal A, Baughan-Sarrazin MS, Richardson K, Cram P. Testing and treatment for osteoporosis following hip fracture in an integrated US healthcare delivery system. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22(12):2973–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Leslie WD, Giangregorio LM, Yogendran M, Azimaee M, Morin S, Metge C, Caetano P, Lix LM. A population-based analysis of the post-fracture care gap 1996-2008: the situation is not improving. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23(5):1623–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Brennan SL, Wluka AE, Gould H, Nicholson GC, Leslie WD, Ebeling PR, Oldenburg B, Kotowicz MA, Pasco JA. Social determinants of bone densitometry utilization for osteoporosis risk in patients aged 50 years and over: a systematic review. J Clin Densitom. 2012;15(2):165–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kanis JA, Oden A, Johansson H, Borgstrom F, Strom O, McCloskey E. FRAX and its applications to clinical practice. Bone. 2009;44:734–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Aspray TJ. Fragility fracture: recent developments in risk assessment. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Disord. 2015;7:17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Silverman S, Calderon A. The utility and limitations of FRAX: a US perspective. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2010;8:192–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Brennan SL, Holloway KL, Williams LJ, Kotowicz MA, Bucki-Smith G, Moloney DJ, Dobbins AG, Timney EN, Pasco JA. The social gradient of fractures at any skeletal site in men and women: data from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study Fracture Grid. Osteoporos Int. 2015;26:1351–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brennan SL, Yan L, Lix LM, Morin SN, Majumdar SR, Leslie WD. Sex and age-specific associations between income and incident major osteoporotic fractures in Canadian men and women: a population-based analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2015;26:59–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Brennan SL, Leslie WD, Lix LM. Associations between adverse social position and bone mineral density in women aged 50 years or older: data from the Manitoba Bone Density Program. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24(9):2405–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brennan SL, Leslie WD, Lix LM, Johansson H, Oden A, McCloskey E, Kanis JA. FRAX provides robust fracture prediction regardless of socioeconomic status. Osteoporos Int. 2014;25:61–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    MacLean C, Newberry S, Maglione M, McMahon M, Ranganath V, Suttorp M, Mojica W, Timmer M, Alexander A, McNamara M, Desai SB, Zhou A, Chen S, Carter J, Tringale C, Valentine D, Johnsen B, Grossman J. Systematic review: comparative effectiveness of treatments to prevent fractures in men and women with low bone density or osteoporosis. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:197–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Duque G, Lord SR, Mak J, Ganda K, Close JJ, Ebeling P, Papaioannou A, Inderjeeth CA. Treatment of osteoporosis in Australian Residential Aged Care Facilities: update on consensus recommendations for fracture prevention. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016;17(9):852–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Huo YR, Suriyaarachchi P, Gomez F, Curcio CL, Boersma D, Muir SW, Montero-Odasso M, Gunawardene P, Demontiero O, Duque G. Phenotype of osteosarcopenia in older individuals with a history of falling. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015;16(4):9–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hassan E, Duque G. Osteosarcopenia: a new geriatric syndrome. Aust Fam Physician. 2017;46(11):849–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Huo YR, Suriyaarachchi P, Gomez F, Curcio CL, Boersma D, Gunawardene P, Demontiero O, Duque G. Comprehensive nutritional status in sarco-osteoporotic older fallers. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19(4):474–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Duque G, Brennan-Olsen SL, Phu S, Bani-Hassan E. A spotlight on preventing falls and fractures in older persons: Osteosarcopenia Roadshow. Melbourne: Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS); 2017. p. 1–42.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Litwic A, Edwards MH, Dennison EM, Cooper C. Epidemiology and burden of osteoarthritis. Br Med J. 2013;105(1):185–99.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    MacDonald-Wood A, Brock TM, Heil K, Holmes R, Weusten A. A review on the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Int J Chronic Dis. 2013;2013:1–10. Article ID 845015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wluka AE, Teichtahl AJ, Maulana R, Liu BM, Wang Y, Giles GG, O’Sullivan R, Findlay D, Cicuttini FM. Bone marrow lesions can be subtyped into groups with different clinical outcomes using two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:270.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jones G, Ding C, Scott F, Glisson M, Cicuttini FM. Early radiographic osteoarthritis is associated with substantial changes in cartilage volume and tibial bone surface area in both males and females. Osteoarthr Cart. 2004;12:169–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kellgren JH, Lawrence JS. Radiological assessment of osteo-arthrosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1957;16:494–502.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Creamer P, Hochberg MC. Osteoarthritis. Lancet. 2001;350:503–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kohn MD, Sassoon AA, Fernando ND. Classifications in brief: Kellgren-Lawrence classification of osteoarthritis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2016;474(8):1886–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ratzlaff CR, Liang MH. Prevention of injury-related knee osteoarthritis: opportunities for the primary and secondary prevention of knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:215.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Johnson VL, Hunter DJ. The epidemiology of osteoarthritis. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2014;28:5–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Schouten J, van den Ouweland FA, Valkenburg HA. A 12 year follow up study in the general population on prognostic factors of cartilage loss in osteoarthritis of the knee. Ann Rheum Dis. 1992;51:932–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Blagojevic M, Jinks C, Jeffery A, Jordan KP. Risk factors for onset of osteoarthritis of the knee in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoarthr Cart. 2010;18(1):24–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Felson D, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, Naimark A, Weissman B, Aliabadi P, Levy D. Risk factors for incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis in the elderly: the Framingham Study. Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40:728–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Brennan SL, Lane SE, Lorimer M, Buchbinder R, Wluka AE, Page RS, Osborne RH, Pasco JA, Sanders KM, Cashman K, Ebeling PR, Graves SE. Associations between socioeconomic status and primary total knee joint replacements performed for osteoarthritis across Australia 2003-10: data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014;15:356.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Roos EM, Arden NK. Strategies for the prevention of knee osteoarthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2016;12:92–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Cameron KL, Hsiao MS, Owens BD, Burks R, Svoboda SJ. Incidence of physician-diagnosed osteoarthritis among active duty United States military service members. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:2974–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ackerman IN, Kemp JL, Crossley KM, Culvenor AG, Hinman RS. Hip and knee osteoarthritis affects younger people too. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017;47(2):67–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ackerman IN, Bucknill A, Page RS, Broughton NS, Roberts C, Cavka B, et al. The substantial personal burden experienced by younger people with hip or knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cart. 2015;23(8):1276–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Valderrabano V, Steiger C. Treatment and prevention of osteoarthritis through exercise and sports. J Aging Res. 2011;2011:1–6. Article ID 374653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jones RK, Chapman GJ, Findlow AH, Forsythe L, Parkes MJ, Sultan J, Felson DT. A new approach to prevention of knee osteoarthritis: reducing medial load in the contralateral knee. J Rheumatol. 2013;40(3):309–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bhatia D, Bejarano T, Novo M. Current interventions in the management of knee osteoarthritis. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013;5(1):30–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Timmins KA, Leech RD, Batt ME, Edwards KL. Running and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(6):1447–57.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Cooney JK, Law RJ, Matschke V, Lemmey AB, Moore JP, Ahmad Y, Jones JG, Maddison P, Thom JM. Benefits of exercise in rheumatoid arthritis. J Aging Res. 2011;2011:1–14. Article ID 681640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hendry M, Williams NH, Markland D, Wilkinson C, Maddison P. Why should we exercise when our knees hurt? A qualitative study of primary care patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Fam Pract. 2006;23(5):558–67.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Prosser N, Webb M. Primary and secondary prevention of rheumatoid arthritis. 1st ed. Wales: Public Health Wales NHS Trust; 2010. p. 10.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Karmisholt K, Gotzsche PC. Physical activity for secondary prevention of disease. Systematic reviews of randomised clinical trials. Dan Med Bull. 2005;52(2):90–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Puett DW, Griffin MR. Published trials of non-medicinal and noninvasive therapies for hip and knee osteoarthritis. Ann Intern Med. 1994;121:133–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    McQuade KJ, de Oliveira AS. Effects of progressive resistance strength training on knee biomechanics during single leg step-up in persons with mild knee osteoarthritis. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2011;26:741–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Deyle GD, Allison SC, Matekel RL, Ryder MG, Stang JM, Gohdes DD, et al. Physical therapy treatment effectiveness for osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized comparison of supervised clinical exercise and manual therapy procedures versus a home exercise program. Phys Ther. 2005;85:1301–17.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lo GH, LaValley M, McAlindon T, Felson D. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid in treatment of knee osteoarthritis. JAMA. 2003;290:3115–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Chang RW, Pellisier JM, Hazen GB. A cost-effectiveness analysis of total hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis of the hip. JAMA. 1996;275:858–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Walker DJ, Heslop PS, Chandler C, Pinder IM. Measured ambulation and self-reported health status following total joint replacement for the osteoarthritic knee. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002;41:755–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Thumboo J, Chew LH, Lewin-Koh SC. Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors influence pain or physical function in Asian patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61(11):1017–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Turkiewicz A, Petersson IF, Bjork J, Hawker G, Dahlberg LE, Lohmander LS, Englund M. Current and future impact of osteoarthritis on health care: a population-based study with projections to year 2032. Osteoarthr Cart. 2014;22(11):1826–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wetterholm M, Turkiewicz A, Stigmar K, Hubertsson J, Englund M. The rate of joint replacement in osteoarthritis depends on the patient’s socioeconomic status: a cohort study of 71,380 patients. Acta Orthop. 2016;87(3):245–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Brennan-Olsen SL, Page RS, Lane SE, Lorimer M, Buchbinder R, Osborne RH, Pasco JA, Wluka AE, Sanders KM, Ebeling PR, Graves SE. Few geographic and socioeconomic variations in primary total shoulder arthroplasty: a multi-level study of Australian registry data. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17:291.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rindfleisch JA, Muller D. Diagnosis and management of rheumatoid arthritis. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72(6):1037–47.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Cross M, Smith E, Hoy D, Carmona L, Wolfe F, Vos T, Williams B, Gabriel S, Lassere M, Johns N, Buchbinder R, Woolf A, March L. The global burden of rheumatoid arthritis: estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73(7):1316–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Choy EH, Panayi GS. Cytokine pathways and joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:907–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Arthritis and Osteoporosis Victoria. A problem worth solving. Elsternwick, Melbourne: Arthritis and Osteoporosis Victoria; 2013.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Aletaha D, Neogi T, Silman AJ, Funovits J, Felson DT, Bingham CO III, Birnbaum NS, Burmester GR, Bykerk VP, Cohen MD, Combe B, Costenbader KH, Bougados M, Emery P, Ferracioli G, Hazes JMW, Hobbs K, Huizinga TWJ, Kavanaugh A, Kay J, Kvien TK, Laing T, Mease P, Menard HA, Moreland LW, Naden RL, Pincus T, Smolen JS, Stanislawka-Biernat E, Symmons D, Tak PP, Upchurch KS, Vencovsky J, Wolfe F, Hawker G. 2010 Rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:1580–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nordberg LB, Lillegraven S, Lie E, Aga A-B, Olsen IC, Hammer HB, Uhlig T, Jonsson MK, van der Heijde D, Kvien TK, Haavardsholm EA, the ARCTIC working group. Patients with seronegative RA have more inflammatory activity compared with patients with seropositive RA in an inception cohort of DMARD-naive patients classified according to the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76:341–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Arvidsson NG, Gubjornsson B, Hallgren R, Larrson A. Concordant message of different inflammatory markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ups J Med Sci. 1998;103:35–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Whicher JT, Dieppe PA. Acute phase proteins. Clin Immunol Allergy. 1985;5:425–46.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Karlson EW, Shadick NA, Cook NR, Buring JE, Lee I-M. Vitamin E in the primary prevention of rheumatoid arthritis: the Women’s Health Study. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;59(11):1589–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Shadick NA, Karlson EW, Cook NR, Maher NE, Buring JE, Lee I-M. Low-dose aspiring in the primary prevention of rheumatoid arthritis: the women’s health study. Arthritis Care Res. 2010;62:545–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Law RJ, Breslin A, Oliver EJ, Mawn L, Markland DA, Maddison P, Thom JM. Perceptions of the effects of exercise on joint health in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49(12):2444–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ruderman EM. Overview of safety of non-biologic and biologic DMARDs. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012;51(Supp 6):vi37–43.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kahlenberg JM, Fox DA. Advances in the medical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Hand Clin. 2011;27(1):11–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Littlejohn G, Roberts L, Arnold M, et al. A multi-centre, observational study shows high proportion of Australian rheumatoid arthritis patients have inadequate disease control. Int J Rheum Dis. 2013;16:532–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jonsson B, Kobelt G, Smolen J. The burden of rheumatoid arthritis and access to treatment: uptake of new therapies. Eur J Health Econ. 2008;8(Suppl 2):S61–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ragab G, Elshahaly M, Bardin T. Gout: an old disease in new perspective – a review. J Adv Res. 2017;8(5):495–511.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Doherty M. New insights into the epidemiology of gout. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48(Suppl 2):ii2–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Clinic M. Gout diet: what’s allowed, what’s not. 2018. Accessed 3 Jan 2018.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Boutcher SH. High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss. J Obes. 2011;2011:1–10. Article ID 868305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Heydari M, Freund J, Boutcher SH. The effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on body composition of overweight young males. J Obes. 2012;2012:1–8. Article ID 480467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Orriss IR, Arnett TR, George J, Witham MD. Allopurinol and oxypurinol promote osteoblast differentiation and increase bone formation. Exp Cell Res. 2016;342(2):166–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Latest evidence on gout management: what the clinician needs to know. Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2012;3(6):271–86.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Caspi D, Lubart E, Graff E, Habot B, Yaron M, Segal R. The effect of mini-dose aspirin on renal function and uric acid handling in elderly patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:103–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Joplin S, van der Zwan R, Joshua F, Wong PKK. Medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the effect of patient education, health literacy, and musculoskeletal ultrasound. BioMed Res Int. 2015;2015:1–10. Article ID 150658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    van den Bemt BJ, Zwikker HE, van den Ende CH. Medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a critical appraisal of the existing literature. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2012;8(4):337–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Cadarette SM, Burden AM. Measuring and improving adherence to osteoporosis pharmacotherapy. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2010;22(4):397–403.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Warriner AH, Curtis JR. Adherence to osteoporosis treatments: room for improvement. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2009;21:356–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Otmar R, Reventlow SD, Morrow M, Nicholson GC, Kotowicz MA, Pasco JA. A cultural models approach to osteoporosis prevention and treatment. SAGE Open. 2012;2(4):1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Otmar R, Reventlow SD, Nicholson GC, Kotowicz MA, Pasco JA. General medical practitioners’ knowledge and beliefs about osteoporosis and its investigation and management. Arch Osteoporos. 2012;7:107–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Laslett LL, McNeil JD, Lynch J. Patient education – the forgotten link in managing osteoporosis. Aust Fam Physician. 2004;33:121–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Taylor A, Phillips P, Gill T, Leach G. A population perspective of osteoporosis. How common? What impact? How modifiable? Health Promot J Aust. 2003;14(1):61–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hosking SM, Dobbins AG, Pasco JA, Brennan SL. Knowledge change regarding osteoporosis prevention: translating recommended guidelines into user-friendly messages for the community. Arch Osteoporos. 2015;8:33.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-0985-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Carr A. Barriers to the effectiveness of any intervention in OA. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2001;15(4):645–56.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Wong PKK, Christie L, Johnstone H, et al. How well do patients understand written instructions? Health literacy assessment in rural and urban rheumatology outpatients. Medicine. 2014;93(25):e129.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    De Vera MA, Marcotte G, Rai S, Galo JS, Bhole V. Medication adherence in gout: a systematic review. Arthritis Care Res. 2014;66(10):1551–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharon L. Brennan-Olsen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alan Hayes
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gustavo Duque
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medicine-Western HealthThe University of MelbourneSt AlbansAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS)The University of Melbourne and Western HealthSt AlbansAustralia
  3. 3.Institute for Health and SportVictoria UniversityFootscrayAustralia

Personalised recommendations