Clinical Research Transformative of Clinical Medicine

  • Olli S. Miettinen
  • Johann Steurer
  • Albert Hofman


While developments founded on knowledge (biological) derived from laboratory-level clinical research have made clinical medicine well-endowed with products and processes for (selective) deployment by doctors, they naturally haven’t transformed the essence of clinical medicine. And gnostic clinical research, such as it has been, has largely failed to provide the requisite knowledge (clinical) for scientific practice of clinical medicine (Sect.  3.3, above). The basis for this failure has not been paucity of gnostic clinical research but the nature of the ideas that now underpin this research (Sect.  3.1). We here present an introduction to an alternative way of thinking about the requisite knowledge-base of clinical medicine, one that would serve as the foundation for education in and practice of gnostic clinical research transformative of practices in clinical medicine, by providing for its becoming scientifically knowledge-based.


Diagnostic tests’ properties Diagnostic probabilities Diagnostic probability functions Etiognostic probability functions Prognostic probability functions Education for gnostic clinical research CLINICAL Scholars programs MD-PhD programs Clinical research transformed Clinical medicine transformed 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olli S. Miettinen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Johann Steurer
    • 3
  • Albert Hofman
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of MedicineWeill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Horten Center for Patient-oriented Research and Knowledge TransferUniversity of ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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