Detection of Defects in Malus asiatica Nakai Using Hyperspectral Imaging

  • Jianglong Liu
  • Shujuan ZhangEmail author
  • Haixia Sun
  • Zhiming Wu
Conference paper
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 509)


Hyperspectral imaging technology was employed to detect defects such as rot, bruise and rust in Malus asiatica Nakai. 213 RGB images of samples, including 3 types of damage samples and sound ones, were acquired by hyperspectral imaging system. Spectral data were extracted from the regions of interest (ROI) using ENVI4.7 software. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used to select characteristic wavelength points. As a result, 11 and 6 characteristic wavelength points were chosen for CARS and SPA respectively. Extreme learning machine (ELM) discrimination model was established based on the spectral data of selected wavebands. The results showed that the accuracy of the SPA-ELM discrimination model was as great as 94.74%. Then, images corresponding to six sensitive bands (532 nm, 563 nm, 611 nm, 676 nm, 812 nm, and 925 nm) selected by SPA were selected for principal components analysis (PCA). Finally, the images of PCA were employed to identify the location and area of a defect’s feature through imaging processing. Through sobel operator and region growing algorithm, the edge and defective feature of 38 Malus asiatica Nakai can be recognized and the detection precision was 92.11%. This study demonstrated that the defects, (rot, bruise, and rust) of Malus asiatica Nakai can be detected in spectral analysis and feature detection in hyperspectral imaging technology, which provides a theoretical reference for the online detection of defects in Malus asiatica Nakai.


Malus asiatica Nakai Defects Hyperspectral imaging  Detection 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31271973) and graduate student education innovation project of Shanxi province (2017SY032). The authors are indebted to professor He Yong (College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China) for generously offering the hyperspectral imaging system.


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Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianglong Liu
    • 1
  • Shujuan Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Haixia Sun
    • 1
  • Zhiming Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EngineeringShanxi Agricultural UniversityTaiguChina

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