Cavernous Sinus Syndrome

  • Forhad Hossian Chowdhury
  • Mohammod Raziul Haque
  • Mohammod Zahed Hossain
  • Mainul Haque Sarker


The progress in the understanding of central nervous system (CNS) and skull base infections, is tremendous and it is more so in the case of fungal infections of CNS and skull base, especially cavernous sinus (CS) fungal infection. Available diagnostic tools and appropriate management protocol are continuously changing towards the better management of the fungal infection of CS. CS fungal lesions usually spread from surrounding the paranasal sinuses (PNS) and from the orbit. So understanding the pathology and pathologenesis is vital in the management of such dangerous infections. Management of CS fungal infection is not straightforward and rather complicated due to the underlying immunodeficiency in most of the patients. Treatment is mainly surgical with antifungal drug therapy. For ease of discussion in this chapter, brief anatomy of CS, etiopathogenesis of CS fungal infection, clinical presentation, radiological findings, and management with some special condition/complications of CS fungal infection including prevention will be discussed briefly.


Cavernous sinus Cavernous sinus fungal infection Fungal cavernous sinus thrombosis Cavernous sinus aspergillosis Cavernous sinus mucormycosis 



Central nervous system


Cavernous sinus


Cavernous sinus thrombosis


Computed tomography


Computed tomographic angiogram


Digital subtraction angiography




Fluid attenuated inversion recovery


Internal carotid artery


Middle cerebral artery


Magnetic resonance angiogram


Magnetic resonance imaging


Paranasal sinuses


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Forhad Hossian Chowdhury
    • 1
  • Mohammod Raziul Haque
    • 2
  • Mohammod Zahed Hossain
    • 1
  • Mainul Haque Sarker
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryNational Institute of Neurosciences and HospitalDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.NeurosurgeryDhaka Medical College and HospitalDhakaBangladesh

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