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Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Bipolaris spp., Schizophyllum commune, and Scedosporium apiospermum

  • A. Serda Kantarcioglu
Chapter

Abstract

Dematiaceous fungi Cladosporium species, Bipolaris hawaiiensis, Schizophyllum commune, and members of Scedosporium apiospermum complex are common saprobes in soil, and pathogens of plants and infective propagules can be air transported. S. apiospermum can be commonly found in polluted waters, and Fusarium species are hyaline hyphomycetes found in soil, air, and water, and some are plant pathogens. The fungus was isolated from hospital environment and water tanks.

Cladosporium species can rarely be cause of cerebral phaeohyphomycoses, while B. hawaiiensis and S. apiospermum shows a marked neurotropism and a high propensity to cause central nervous system ( CNS) infections in healthy and immunocompromised patients. Almost all reported CNS infections by Fusarium spp. were in disseminated fusariosis cases.

The CNS fungal infections by hyphomycetes may present with various clinical syndromes, such as basal meningitis and space-occupying lesions (such as cerebral abscesses, granulomas, etc.). The CNS mycoses by hyphomycetes carry higher risks of morbidities and mortality.

In vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of these fungi may be species-/strain-dependent and demonstrate usually high MICs to most antifungal agents. Fusarium strains have high levels of intrinsic antifungal resistance. In addition to antifungal treatment, the optimal management of patients with these molds includes surgical debridement of infected tissues whenever possible. Delay in initiation of appropriate antifungal treatment and the use of corticosteroids was associated with treatment failure. Amphotericin B and voriconazole are the most useful broad-spectrum antifungal medication but with many toxic side effects and limitations.

Keywords

Dematiaceous fungi Neurotropism Hyalohyphomycetes Angiotropism 

Abbreviations

ALL

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

AMB

Amphotericin B

AML

Acute myeloid leukemia

CLSI

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute

CNS

Central nervous system

CT

Computed tomography

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

ECMM

European Confederation of Medical Mycology

EFISG

European Fungal Infection Study Group

ESCMID

European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

EUCAST

European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility

G-CSF

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

GM-CSF

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

GPDH

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

HSCT

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

ITS

Internal transcribed spacer

KOH

Potassium hydroxide

MALDI-TOF MS

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometer

MEC

Minimum effective concentration

MIC

Minimum inhibitory concentration

MLST

Multi-locus sequence typing

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

SDA

Sabouraud dextrose agar

VRZ

Voriconazole

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Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Serda Kantarcioglu
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Mycology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Cerrahpasa Medical FacultyIstanbul University-CerrahpasaIstanbulTurkey

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