Advertisement

Cladophialophora bantiana

  • Hurriyet Deniz Ozgun
  • Darren L. Jacobs
  • Steven A. TomsEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Cladophialophora bantiana is a thermotolerant multinucleated saprophytic black mold that reproduces asexually via unicellular conidia. Melanin present in C. bantiana is a potential virulence factor for the pathogenesis of central nervous system infections and is the reason behind the darkly pigmented appearance, which gives a specific name to its infection: phaeohyphomycosis, meaning “of dark hyphal fungus.” Overall, 48% of the cerebral phaeohyphomycosis cases reported were caused by C. bantiana, with a mortality of 71%. Prolonged treatment with antifungal medicine, especially when combined with newer antifungals, can give more promising results. Even when complete resection and long-term antifungal treatment suggest resolution, infections with C. bantiana should be followed up for 1–2 years after apparent resolution to avoid relapse.

Keywords

Melanin CNS infection Black mold Fungus Brain abscess 

Abbreviations

AFLP

Amplified fragment length polymorphism

CNS

Central nervous system

CT

Computed tomography

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

DHN

Dihydroxynaphthalene

DOPA

Dihydroxyphenylalanine

ITS

Internal transcribed spacer

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

UV

Ultraviolet

References

  1. Ahmad M, Jacobs D, Wu H, Wolk D, Kazmi S, Jaramillo C, Toms S. Cladophialophora bantiana: a rare intracerebral fungal abscess—case series and review of literature. Surg J. 2017;03(02):e62–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajantha GS, Raghavendra D, Kulkarni R. Cladophialophora bantiana, the neurotropic fungus – a mini review. J Clin Diagn Res. 2011;5:1301–6.Google Scholar
  3. Badali H, Gueidan C, Najafzadeh MJ, Bonifaz A, van den Ende AH, De Hoog GS. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora. Stud Mycol. 2008;61:175–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Badali H, De Hoog GS, Curfs-Breuker I, Klaassen CH, Meis JF. Use of amplified fragment length polymorphism to identify 42 Cladophialophora strains related to cerebral phaeohyphomycosis with in vitro antifungal susceptibility. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48(07):2350–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chakrabarti A. Epidemiology of central nervous system mycoses. Neurol India. 2007;55:191–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Hoog GS. Black fungi: clinical and pathogenic approaches. Med Mycol. 2000;38:243–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. van den Ende BG, De Hoog S. Variability and molecular diagnostics of the neurotropic species Cladophialophora bantiana. Stud Mycol. 1999;43:151–62.Google Scholar
  8. Emmens RK, Richardson D, Thomas W, et al. Necrotizing cerebritis in an allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient due to Cladophialophora bantiana. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34(05):1330–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Garzoni C, Markham L, Bijlenga P, Garbino J. Cladophialophora bantiana: a rare cause of fungal brain abscess. Clinical aspects and new therapeutic options. Med Mycol. 2008;46(05):481–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Hoog SG. History of Medical Mycology, Luciano Polonelli, Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, Unit of Microbiology and Virology, University of Parma, Parma, Italy (from the website of international society for human and animal mycology). 1995Google Scholar
  11. Jayakeerthi SR, Dias M, Nagarathna S, Anandh B, Mahadevan A, Chandramuki A. Brain abscess due to cladophialophora bantiana. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2004;22:193–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kantarcıoǧlu AS, De Hoog GS. Infections of the central nervous system by melanized fungi: a review of cases presented between 1999 and 2004. Mycoses. 2004;47:4–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kuan CS, Cham CY, Singh G, Yew SM, Tan Y-C, Chong P-S, et al. Genomic analyses of Cladophialophora bantiana, a major cause of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis provides insight into its lifestyle, virulence and adaption in host. PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0161008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lakshmi V, Padmasri C, Umabala P, Sundaram C, Panigrahi M. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladophialophora bantiana. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008;26:392–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Langfelder K, Streibel M, Jahn B, Haase G, Brakhage AA. Biosynthesis of fungal melanins and their importance for human pathogenic fungi. Fungal Genet Biol. 2003;38:143–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Levin TP, Baty DE, Fekete T, Truant AL, Suh B. Cladophialophora bantiana brain abscess in a solid-organ transplant recipient: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42(09):4374–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Moller EM, Bahnweg G, Sandermann H, Geiger HH. Asimpleand efficient protocol for isolation of high molecular weight DNA from filamentous fungi, fruit bodies, and infected plant tissues. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:6115–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Perfect J, Schell W, Cox G. Phaeohyphomycosis. In: Dismukes W, Pappas P, Sobel J, editors. Clinical mycology. New York: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 271–82.Google Scholar
  19. Rantala M, Attia S, Koukila-Kähkölä P, De Hoog S, Anttila M, Katila T. Cladophialophora bantiana as an emerging pathogen in animals: case report of equine endometritis and review of the literature. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53:3047–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Revankar SG, Sutton DA. Melanized fungi in human disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010;23(4):884–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Revankar SG, Sutton DA, Rinaldi MG. Primary central nervous system phaeohyphomycosis: a review of 101 cases. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(02):206–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Salama AD, Rogers T, Lord GM, Lechler RI, Mason PD. Multiple Cladosporium brain abscess in a renal transplant patient: aggressive management improves outcome. Transplantation. 1997;63(01):160–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Satton DA, Rinaldi MG, Sanche SE. Dematiaceous fungi. In: Anaissie EJ, McGinnis MR, Pfaller MA, editors. Clinical mycology. 2nd ed. Philedelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2009. p. 329–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Scheld MW, Whitley RJ, Marra CM. Infections of the central nervous system. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004. p. 719.Google Scholar
  25. Seyedmousavi S, Netea MG, Mouton JW, Melchers WJG, Verweij PE, De Hoog GS. Black yeasts and their filamentous relatives: principles of pathogenesis and host defense. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2014;27(3):527–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Trinh JV, Steinbach WJ, Schell WA, Kurtzberg J, Giles SS, Perfect JR. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in an immunodeficient child treated medically with combination antifungal therapy. Med Mycol. 2003;41(04):339–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hurriyet Deniz Ozgun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Darren L. Jacobs
    • 3
  • Steven A. Toms
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Acıbadem Mehmet Ali Aydınlar UniversityİstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryLifespan Health SystemProvidenceUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurosurgeryGeisinger Health SystemDanvilleUSA
  4. 4.Brown University Alpert Medical SchoolProvidenceUSA

Personalised recommendations