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Blastomycosis and Phaeohyphomycosis

  • María Guadalupe Frías-De-León
  • Erick Martínez-Herrera
  • María del Rocío Reyes-Montes
  • Gustavo Acosta-Altamirano
Chapter

Abstract

The incidence of the mycoses affecting the central nervous system has increased in recent years. These mycoses occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals and are caused by primary fungi (yeasts and filamentous fungi). Among these fungi, Blastomyces spp. and phaeoid fungi stand out, which are characterized by reaching the CNS through hematogenous dissemination or neurotropism. The mortality of patients with CNS infection caused by these fungi is high, because it is difficult to make a specific diagnosis opportunely. The initial treatment of these mycoses is amphotericin B, although many patients may require lifetime treatment with some azole antifungal to avoid relapses. Therefore, these infections require an opportune and precise diagnosis, as well as careful treatment strategies to ensure the proper management of patients. This chapter presents a review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of CNS infections caused by Blastomyces spp. and phaeoid fungi.

Keywords

Blastomycosis Phaeohyphomycosis Blastomyces spp. Phaeoid fungi SNC Meningitis Brain abscess Amphotericin B Azole antifungals 

Abbreviations

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

CNS

Central nervous system

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

GMS

Gomori methenamine silver

HE

Hematoxylin-eosin

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

PAS

Periodic acid-Schiff

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PMN

Polymorphonuclear

USA

United States of America

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • María Guadalupe Frías-De-León
    • 1
  • Erick Martínez-Herrera
    • 1
  • María del Rocío Reyes-Montes
    • 2
  • Gustavo Acosta-Altamirano
    • 1
  1. 1.Research UnitHospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de IxtapalucaIxtapalucaMexico
  2. 2.Microbiology and Parasitology Department, School of MedicineUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexico CityMexico

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