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Histoplasmosis and Coccidioidomycosis

  • María del Rocío Reyes-Montes
  • Maria Lucia Taylor
  • Esperanza Duarte-Escalante
  • María Guadalupe Frías-De-León
Chapter

Abstract

Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) have increased in recent decades due to the growth of population susceptible to infections caused by primary fungal pathogens. Among these fungi, both genus Histoplasma and Coccidioides stand out, which are characterized by reaching the CNS through hematogenous dissemination. The mortality of patients with CNS infection caused by these fungi is high, particularly because of the complication to make a specific diagnosis in a timely manner. The initial treatment of these mycoses is amphotericin B; therefore, these infections require an opportune and precise diagnosis for the proper management of patients. In this chapter, a review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, as well as the treatment of histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis of the CNS is presented.

Keywords

Histoplasmosis Coccidioidomycosis CNS Meningitis Brain abscess Amphotericin B Azole antifungals 

Abbreviations

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

CF

Complement fixation

CNS

Central nervous system

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

ECM

Extracellular matrix

EIA

Enzyme immunoassay

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EORTC/MSG

European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

GMS

Gomori methenamine silver

HE

Hematoxylin-eosin

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

ID

Double immunodiffusion

IFN

Interferon

IL

Interleukin

ITS

Internal transcribed spacer

PAS

Periodic acid-Schiff

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PMN

Polymorphonuclear

PRRs

Recognition receptors

qPCR

Real-time quantitative

RAPD

Random amplified polymorphic DNA

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

Sag

Serum antigens

STAT3

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

UAg

Urinary antigen

USA

United States of America

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • María del Rocío Reyes-Montes
    • 1
  • Maria Lucia Taylor
    • 1
  • Esperanza Duarte-Escalante
    • 1
  • María Guadalupe Frías-De-León
    • 2
  1. 1.Microbiology and Parasitology Department, School of MedicineUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Research UnitHospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de IxtapalucaIxtapalucaMexico

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